Abrir menu principal
Retrato de William Croone, pintado por Mary Beale em 1680

As Croonian Lectures são prestigiadas palestras apresentadas a convite da Royal Society e do Royal College of Physicians.[1]

Entre os documentos de William Croone em sua morte em 1684, havia um plano para dotar financeiramente um ciclo de conferências da Royal Society e do Royal College of Physicians. Sua mulher providenciou a doação em 1701, especificando que a mesma seria "para o suporte de uma palestra e experimentos ilustrativos para o avanço do conhecimento natural sobre movimento local, ou (condicionalmente) de tais outros assuntos como, na opinião do então presidente, deve ser de melhor uso em promover os assuntos para os quais a Royal Society foi instituída". Uma conferência deve ser apresentada por um fellow do Royal College of Physicians (RCP) e a outra, sobre a natureza e leis do movimento muscular, a ser apresentada frente à Royal Society. A série de conferências da Royal Society começou em 1738 e a do Royal College of Physicians em 1749.[2]

Croone tornou-se fellow original da Royal Society em maio de 1663.[3] Também tornou-se um dos fellows originais do College of Physicians em 29 de julho de 1675. Foi apontado lecturer de anatomia no Surgeon's hall em 1670 e realizou pesquisas em diversas áreas importantes de sua época, incluindo respiração, movimento muscular e geração.

Índice

Lista de lecturers (Royal Society – para lecturers do RCP ver abaixo)Editar

Fonte: Royal Society

Século XVIIIEditar

Fonte:[4]

  • 1738 Alexander Stuart, On the Motion of the Heart
  • 1739 Frank Nicholls, An Enquiry into Muscular Motion
  • 1740 Alexander Stuart, On the Peristaltic Motion of the Intestines. Microscopial Observations on several parts of live Frogs.
  • 1741 James Douglas, Description of the several Muscles, Membranes and parts belonging to the Uvula of the Palate, and concerned in its action; as also of the several parts subservient to the uses of the Tuba Eustachiana
  • 1742 James Douglas, (read by William Douglas) Description and Structure of the Human Bladder, with the Uses of its Muscles and Membranes.
  • 1743 No lecture
  • 1744 James Parsons, An Introductory Discourse on Muscular Motion
  • 1745 James Parsons, On Muscular Motion
  • 1746 James Parsons, Description of the several Muscles of the Face; with their particular Functions and Uses
  • 1747 Browne Langrish, On the Theory of Muscular Motion
  • 1748 – 1749 No lecture
  • 1750 James Parsons, On Muscular Motion
  • 1751 James Parsons, Critical Remarks upon the Motion and Uses of the Human Pelvis.
  • 1752 – 1753 Not recorded
  • 1754 – 1758 Charles Morton
  • 1759 – 1760 Not recorded
  • 1761 Charles Morton
  • 1762 – 1774 Not recorded
  • 1775 – 1780 John Hunter
  • 1781 John Hunter, On the Construction and Application of Muscles and the Power by which they are actuated
  • 1782 John Hunter, On the Density and Firmness of a Muscle as contributing to its Strength and Agility.
  • 1783 Not recorded
  • 1784 Samuel Foart Simmons, On the Irritability of the Muscular Fibres
  • 1785 Edward Whitaker Gray, An Examination into Hallers Theory of Muscular Motion.
  • 1786 Edward Whitaker Gray, On the Effects of different kinds of Salts applied as Stimulants on the Muscles
  • 1787 George Fordyce, On Muscular Motion
  • 1788 Gilbert Blane, On the Nature of the Muscles, and on the Theory of Muscular Motion.
  • 1789 William Blizard, On the Theory of Muscular Motion
  • 1790 Everard Home, On the Mechanism employed in producing Muscular Motion.
  • 1791 Matthew Baillie, A general view of the Nature of the Muscles, and an enumeration of the most striking facts connected with the Theory of their Motion.
  • 1792 Not recorded
  • 1793 Everard Home, On Mr. Hunters Experiments to ascertain whether the Crystalline Humour of the Eye be muscular
  • 1794 Everard Home, On the Crystalline Humour of the Eye
  • 1795 Everard Home, On the Mechanism employed in producing Muscular Motion.
  • 1796 Everard Home, On the Crystalline Humour of the Eye
  • 1797 John Abernethy, A general Review of the latest opinions relative to Animal Life and Motion.
  • 1798 Everard Home, Experiments and Observations upon the Structure of Nerves.
  • 1799 Everard Home, On the Structure and Uses of the Membrana Tympani.
  • 1800 Everard Home, On the Irritability of Nerves

Século XIXEditar

Fonte (1801–30):[4]

  • 1801 Everard Home, On the power of the Eye to adjust itself to different distances when deprived of the Crystalline Lens
  • 1802 Not recorded
  • 1803 John Pearson, On Muscular Motion
  • 1804 Anthony Carlisle,   On Muscular Motion.
  • 1805 Anthony Carlisle, On the Arrangement and Mechanical Action of the Muscles of Fishes.
  • 1806 John Pearson, Remarks on Muscular Power, and on some of the circumstances by which it is increased, diminished or finally abolished
  • 1807 Anthony Carlisle, On the Natural History and Chemical Analysis of the substances which constitute the Muscles of Animals
  • 1808 Thomas Young, On the Functions of the Heart and Arteries
  • 1809 William Hyde Wollaston, Observations on the Mode of Action of Voluntary Muscles, and on the causes which derange, and assist, the Action of the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • 1810 Benjamin Collins Brodie, Physiological Researches, respecting the Influence of the Brain on the Action of the Heart, and on the Generation of Animal Heat.
  • 1811 – 1812 Not recorded
  • 1813 Benjamin Collins Brodie, On the Influence of the Nervous System on the Action of the Muscles in general and of the Heart in particular
  • 1814 –1816 Not recorded
  • 1817 Everard Home, On the Changes the Blood undergoes in the act of Coagulation.
  • 1818 Everard Home, On the conversion of Pus into Granulations, or new flesh.
  • 1819 Everard Home, A further Investigation of the component parts of the Blood.
  • 1820 Everard Home, Microscopical Observations on the following subjects. On the Brain and Nerves; showing that the Materials of which they are composed exist in the Blood
  • 1821 Everard Home, On the Anatomical Structure of the Eye; illustrated by Microscopical Drawings, executed by F. Bauer
  • 1822 Francis Bauer, Microscopical Observations on the suspension of the Muscular Motions of the Vibrio Tritici
  • 1823 Everard Home, On the Internal Structure of the Human Brain, when examined in the Microscope, as compared with that of Fishes, Insects and Worms.
  • 1824 Everard Home, On the existence of Nerves in the Placenta
  • 1825 Everard Home, On the Structure of a Muscular Fibre from which are derived its Elongation and Contraction
  • 1826 Everard Home, An Enquiry into the mode by which the Propagation of the Species is carried on, in the Common Oyster, and in the large Fresh-water Muscle.
  • 1827 Everard Home, On the Muscles peculiar to Organs of Sense in particular Quadrupeds and Fishes
  • 1828 Not appointed
  • 1829 Everard Home, A Report on the Peculiarities met with in the Stomach of the Zariffa.
  • 1830–1850 Not appointed
  • 1851 Richard Owen, On the Megatherium
  • 1852–1856 Not appointed
  • 1857 James Paget, On the cause of the rhythmic action of the heart
  • 1858 Thomas Henry Huxley, On the theory of the vertebrate skull
  • 1859 Not appointed
  • 1860 James Bell Pettigrew, On the arrangement of the muscular fibres of the ventricular portion of the heart of the mammal
  • 1861 Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, On the relations between muscular irritability, cadaveric rigidity, and putrefaction
  • 1862 Albert Kölliker, On the termination of nerves in muscles, as observed in the frog: and on the disposition of the nerves in the frogs heart.
  • 1863 Joseph Lister, On the coagulation of the blood
  • 1864 Hermann Helmholtz, On the normal motions of the human eye in relation to binocular vision.
  • 1865 Lionel S. Beale, On the ultimate nerve fibres distributed to muscle and some other tissues, with observations upon the structure & probable mode of action of a nervous mechanism
  • 1866 Not appointed
  • 1867 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson, On the influence exercised by the movements of respiration on the circulation of the blood
  • 1868 –1869 Not appointed
  • 1870 Augustus V. Waller, On the results of the method (introduced by the author) of investigating the nervous system, more especially as applied to the elucidation of the functions of the pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves in man.
  • 1871 – 1872 Not appointed
  • 1873 Benjamin Ward Richardson, On muscular irritability after systemic death.
  • 1874 David Ferrier, The localization of function in the brain
  • 1875 David Ferrier, Experiments on the brain of monkeys.
  • 1876 G.J. Romanes, Preliminary observations on the locomotor system of medusae.
  • 1877 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson & F.J.M. Page, On the mechanical effects, and on the electrical disturbance consequent on excitation of the leaf of Dionea muscipula.
  • 1878 H.N. Moseley, On the structure of the Stylasteridae: a family of the hydroid stony corals
  • 1879 W.K. Parker, On the structure & development of the skull in the Lacertilia
  • 1880 Samuel Haughton, On some elementary principles in animal mechanics.
  • 1881 G.J. Romanes and J.C. Ewart, Observations on the locomotor system of Medusae.
  • 1882 W.H. Gaskell, On the rhythm of the heart of the frog, and on the nature of the action of the vagus nerve
  • 1883 H. Newell Martin, On the direct influence of gradual variations of temperature upon the rate of beat of the dogs heart
  • 1884 –1885 Not appointed
  • 1886 Leonard Charles Wooldridge, The coagulation of the blood
  • 1887 Harry Govier Seeley, On Pareiasaurus bombidens (Owen) and the significance of its affinities to amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
  • 1888 Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne, Ueber die Entstehung der vitalen Bewegung
  • 1889 Émile Roux, Les inoculations preventives (1853–1933)[5]
  • 1890 H. Marshall Ward, The relations between host and parasite in certain epidemic diseases of plants
  • 1891 Francis Gotch & Victor Horsley, On the mammalian nervous system; its functions and their localization determined by an electrical method.
  • 1892 Angelo Mosso, Les phenomenes psychiques et la temperature du cerveau.
  • 1893 Rudolf Virchow, The position of pathology among biological studies.
  • 1894 Santiago Ramon y Cajal, La fine structure des centres nerveux
  • 1895 T.W. Engelmann, On the nature of muscular contraction
  • 1896 Augustus D. Waller, Observations on isolated nerve.
  • 1897 Charles S. Sherrington, The mammalian spinal cord as an organ of reflex action.
  • 1898 Wilhelm Pfeffer, The nature and significance of functional metabolism in the plant.
  • 1899 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson, On the relation of motion in animals and plants to the electrical phenomena which are associated with it
  • 1900 Paul Ehrlich, On immunity with special reference to cell life

Século XXEditar

Século XXIEditar

  • 2001 Ronald Laskey, Hunting the antisocial cancer cell.[9]
  • 2002 Kim Nasmyth, Disseminating our genomes during mitosis and meiosis.
  • 2003 Tim Hunt, Cell growth, cell division and the problem of cancer
  • 2004 John Krebs, Risk, food, fact and fantasy[10]
  • 2005 Salvador Moncada, Adventures in vascular biology
  • 2006 Iain Campbell, Structure and the living cell[11]
  • 2007 Aaron Klug, Engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) for the regulation of gene expression
  • 2008 John Pickett, Plant and Animal Communication[12]
  • 2009 Linda Partridge, The New Biology of Ageing
  • 2010 Alec Jeffries, Genetic fingerprinting and beyond
  • 2011 John Ellis, Molecular chaperones: how cells stop proteins from misbehaving
  • 2012 Tim Bliss, The Mechanics of Memory[13]
  • 2013 Frances Ashcroft, From bench to bedside: KATP channels and neonatal diabetes[14]
  • 2014 Brigid Hogan, for pioneering contributions that have transformed understanding of cell specification, organogenesis and morphogenesis in mammalian development[14]
  • 2015 Nicholas Barry Davies, for his work on the co-evolved responses of brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts
  • 2016 Enrico Coen, for his work resulting in a new theoretical and experimental foundation for understanding how the shapes of biological structures arise through development and evolution
  • 2017 Jonathan Ashmore, for his significant contributions to the field of sensory neuroscience, shaping our current understanding of inner ear physiology[15]
  • 2018 Jennifer Doudna, Re-writing the Code of Life: CRISPR Systems and Applications of Gene Editing[16]
  • 2019 Kay Davies, for her achievements in developing a prenatal test for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and her work on characterizing dystrophin related proteins[17]

Lista de Lecturers (Royal College of Physicians)Editar

Século XVIIIEditar

Século XIXEditar

Século XXEditar

Século XXIEditar

  • 2000 John Connell, Regulation of the corticosteroid phenotype in humans - implications in the pathogenesis of asthma[138]
  • 2001 Elwyn Elias, Hepato-canalicular cholestasis – its mechanisms, causes and consequences[135]
  • 2002 Humphrey Hodgson, Liver cells - biology to therapeutics[135]
  • 2003 David Barker, Coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: disorders of growth[139]
  • 2004 Alastair Compston, The marvellous harmony of the nervous parts':The origins of multiple sclerosis[140]
  • 2005 David A.Lomas, Molecular mousetraps, a -antitrypsin deficiency and the serpinopathies[141]
  • 2006 Peter John Ratcliffe, Understanding hypoxia signalling in cells; a new therapeutic opportunity?[141]
  • 2007 Peter J. Goadsby, Bench to bedside: headache 2007[135]
  • 2008 Martin Neil Rossor, Dementia – global or modular?[135]
  • 2009 Peter John Barnes, Reversing steroid resistance in inflammatory diseases: a novel therapeutic strategy[135]
  • 2010 Sir Gordon Duff, Challenges in the development of innovative medicines[135]
  • 2011 Stephen O'Rahilly, Obesity and its metabolic consequences: lessons from the extremes[142]
  • 2012 Marc Feldmann, Development of anti cytokine therapy and its future potential[143]
  • 2013 Peter Openshaw, Disease mechanisms revealed by studies of pandemic influenza[144]
  • 2016 Pamela Shaw,Translational neuroscience approach to developing new effective treatments for Motor Neurone Disease[145]

Referências

  1. «Croonian Medal and Lecture». Royal Society. Consultado em 26 de maio de 2016 
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, comprising biographical sketches of all the eminent physicians whose names are recorded in the Annals .. (Volume 3). [S.l.]: Royal College of Physicians  ebook
  3. «Lists of Royal Society Fellows 1660–2007» (PDF). Londres: The Royal Society. Consultado em 26 de maio de 2016 
  4. a b Hudson, James. Report on the Adjudication of the Copley, Rumford and Royal Medals. [S.l.: s.n.] p. 48 
  5. Roux, M. (1889). «The Croonian Lecture on Preventive Inoculation». BMJ. 1 (1484): 1269–74. PMC 2155160 . PMID 20752718. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1484.1269 
  6. Haddon, Alfred C.; Bartlett, F. C.; Fegan, Ethel S. (julho de 1922). «61. William Halse Rivers Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Born 1864, Died June 4th, 1922». Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Man. 22: 97–104. JSTOR 2840503 
  7. Croonian Lecture: Population Genetics by Ronald Fisher, published by The Royal Society Publishing
  8. Unwin, N. (dezembro de 2000). «The Croonian Lecture 2000. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the structural basis of fast synaptic transmission». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 355 (1404): 1813–29. PMC 1692909 . PMID 11205343. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0737 
  9. Laskey, R. (junho de 2005). «The Croonian Lecture 2001: Hunting the antisocial cancer cell: MCM proteins and their exploitation». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1458): 1119–32. PMC 1569504 . PMID 16147513. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1656 
  10. Krebs, John R. (junho de 2005). «The Croonian Lecture 2004 Risk: food, fact and fantasy». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1458): 1133–44. PMC 1569505 . PMID 16147514. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1665 
  11. Campbell, Iain D. (2008). «The Croonian lecture 2006 Structure of the living cell». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1502): 2379–91. PMC 1955230 . PMID 17255009. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1960 
  12. «Plant and animal communication». Royal Society. 2009 
  13. «The mechanics of memory». The Royal Society 
  14. a b «Croonian Lecture». Royal Society 
  15. «Croonian Medal and Lecture-Croonian Medallist 2017». Royal Society. Consultado em 7 de dezembro de 2016 
  16. «Re-writing the Code of Life: CRISPR Systems and Applications of Gene Editing». Royal Society. Consultado em 11 de outubro de 2018 
  17. «Croonian Medal and Lecture winner 2019». Royal Society. Consultado em 11 de outubro de 2018 
  18. «AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Physicians: Lawrence, Thomas (1711–1783)». Aim25.ac.uk 
  19. «Munks Roll Details for Mark Akenside». Munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk 
  20. Jay, V. (dezembro de 2000). «The legacy of William Heberden». Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 124 (12): 1750–1. PMID 11100049. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2000)124<1751:TLOWH>2.0.CO;2 
  21. The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 2. 2. [S.l.]: Royal College of Physicians. p. 175 
  22. a b «Heald University Alumni and Clergy, UK». Healds.org.uk 
  23. Google Books. [S.l.]: Books.google.co.uk. 7 de maio de 2007 
  24. The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 2. 2. [S.l.]: Royal College of Physicians. p. 270 
  25. Coley, N.G. (setembro de 2001). «George Fordyce M.D., F.R.S. (1736–1802): physician-chemist and eccentric». Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 55 (3): 395–409. PMID 11713784. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2001.0154 
  26. The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 2. 2. [S.l.]: Royal College of Physicians. p. 319 
  27. «AIM25 collection description». Aim25.ac.uk 
  28. «Munks Roll Details for John Latham». Munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk 
  29. «AIM25 collection description». Aim25.ac.uk 
  30. The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 2. 2. [S.l.]: Royal College of Physicians. p. 369 
  31. a b c «Administrators,Physicians and Surgeons who served during the ship era» (PDF). Arquivado do original (PDF) em 15 de julho de 2011 
  32. Coley, N.G. (dezembro de 2001). «Early blood chemistry in Britain and France». Clinical Chemistry. 47 (12): 2166–78. PMID 11719488 
  33. «Munks Roll Details for Sir George Burrows». Munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk 
  34. London Medical Gazette: Or, Journal of Practical Medicine, Volume 25. [S.l.: s.n.] 1839 
  35. «Lives of the Fellows-Benjamin Guy Babington». Royal College of Physicians 
  36. «Practical remarks on gout, rheumatic fever, and chronic rheumatism of the joints». Yale University Library. Arquivado do original em 16 de julho de 2011 
  37. «Second Pan-American Congress of the History of Medicine, June, 1961». Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. XV (4): 431–b. 1960. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XV.4.431-b 
  38. Pearce, J.M. (dezembro de 1997). «The life and work of Marshall Hall». QJM. 90 (12): 801–3. PMID 9536346. doi:10.1093/qjmed/90.12.801 
  39. Hall, Marshall (1852). «On Apoplexy and Epilepsy; and on an Hospital for Epileptics». The Lancet. 59 (1495): 395–397. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)60872-4 
  40. «Munks Roll Details for Thomas Mayo». Munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk 
  41. «On Calculous Disease and its Consequences». Association Medical Journal. 4 (198): 889–891. 1856. JSTOR 25497594 
  42. «Croonian Lectures. On the Pathology, Morbid Anatomy, and Treatment of Insanity, delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, London, 1858». BJPsych. 7 (36): 161–179. 1861. doi:10.1192/bjp.7.36.161 
  43. «Croonian Lectures, ON INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION». The Lancet. 73 (1864): 501–504. 1859. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)45700-5 
  44. Guy, W. A. (1860). «Croonian Lectures on the Numerical Method, and its Application to the Science and Art of Medicine». BMJ. s4–1 (188): 593–597. doi:10.1136/bmj.s4-1.188.593 
  45. «Reviews and Notices». BMJ. 1 (265): 97–99. 1866. PMC 2309040 . doi:10.1136/bmj.1.265.97 
  46. Sieveking, Edward H. (31 de março de 1866). «Croonian Lectures on the Localisation of Disease». BMJ. 1 (274): 325–9. PMC 2309123 . PMID 20744582. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.274.325 
  47. Clark, A. (1867). «The Croonian Lectures at the Royal College of Physicians». BMJ. 1 (324): 300–1. PMC 2309436 . PMID 20744728. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.324.300 
  48. «Croonian Lectures on Matter and Force. Given at the Royal College of Physicians in 1868: By Henry Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. Churchill & Sons. 1868». The British Journal of Psychiatry. 14 (68): 561–562. 1869. doi:10.1192/bjp.14.68.561 
  49. «J. W. Ogle, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P». BMJ. 2 (2329): 417–418. 1905. PMC 2321187 . doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2329.417-b 
  50. «AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Physicians: SIBSON, Francis (1814–1876)». Aim25.ac.uk 
  51. Parkes, Edmund Alexander (1871). «The Croonian Lectures at the Royal College of Physicians». BMJ. 1 (324): 300–301. PMC 2309436 . PMID 20744728. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.324.300 
  52. Dictionary of National Biography article on Parkes.
  53. Bristowe, John S. (1872). «Croonian Lectures on Disease and its Medical Treatment». BMJ. 1 (596): 574–576. PMC 2296546 . PMID 20746648. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.596.574 
  54. Radcliffe, C.B. (1873). «Croonian Lectures on Mind, Brain, and Spinal Cord, in Certain Morbid Conditions». BMJ. 1 (641): 395–400. PMC 2296717 . PMID 20747035. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.641.395 
  55. Murchison, C. (1874). «The Croonian Lectures on Functional Derangements of the Liver». BMJ. 1 (696): 567–570. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.696.567 
  56. Greenhow, E. H. (1875). «The Croonian Lectures on Addison's Disease». BMJ. 1 (741): 335–337. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.741.335 
  57. Dickinson, W. H. (1876). «The Croonian Lectures on the Pathology and Relations of Albuminuria». BMJ. 1 (799): 499–501. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.799.499 
  58. Hicks, J.Braxton (1877). «The Croonian Lectures on the Difference between the Sexes in Regard to the Aspect and Treatment of Disease». BMJ. 1 (846): 318–320. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.846.318 
  59. Pavy, F. W. (julho de 1879). «The Croonian Lectures on Certain Points connected with Diabetes». The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 78 (155): 199–204. doi:10.1097/00000441-187907000-00022 
  60. «Croonian Lectures ON SOME APPLICATIONS OF PHYSICS TO MEDICINE». The Lancet. 114 (2937): 864–865. 1879. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)48126-3 
  61. Cayley, William (1880). «The Croonian Lectures on Some Points in the Pathology and Treatment of Typhoid Fever». BMJ. 1 (1008): 611–613. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1008.611 
  62. Moxon, Walter (1881). «The Croonian Lectures on the Influence of the Circulation upon the Nervous System». BMJ. 1 (1061): 672–675. PMC 2263505 . PMID 20749857. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1061.672 
  63. Fayrer, J. (1882). «Croonian Lectures on the Climate and Fevers of India». BMJ. 1 (1114): 645–649. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1114.645 
  64. «obituary James Edward Pollock». BMJ. 2. 2053 páginas. 1910. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2609.2053 
  65. York, G.K.; Steinberg, D.A. (junho de 2002). «The philosophy of Hughlings Jackson». Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 95 (6): 314–8. PMC 1279922 . PMID 12042387. doi:10.1258/jrsm.95.6.314 
  66. «Sir Herman David Weber». Whonamedit. 11 de novembro de 1918 
  67. Latham, P.W. (1886). «The Croonian Lectures on Some Points in the Pathology of Rheumatism, Gout, and Diabetes». BMJ. 1 (1320): 730–737. PMC 2256987 . PMID 20751529. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1320.730 
  68. Broadbent, William H. (1887). «The Croonian Lectures on the Pulse». BMJ. 1 (1371): 763–8. PMC 2534368 . PMID 20751857. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1371.763 
  69. MacAlister, Donald (1888). «Abstract of the Croonian Lectures on Antipyretics». BMJ. 2 (1437): 68–71. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1437.68 
  70. Brunton, T. L. (1889). «The Croonian Lectures on the Relationship between Chemical Structure and Physiological Action». BMJ. 2 (1489): 64–9. PMC 2155388 . PMID 20752755. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1489.64 
  71. «ABSTRACT OF THE Croonian Lectures ON CEREBRAL LOCALISATION». The Lancet. 136 (3489): 64–66. 1890. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)64403-3 
  72. Sanderson, J.Burdon (1891). «The Croonian Lectures on the Progress of Discovery Relating to the Origin and Nature of Infectious Diseases». BMJ. 2 (1613): 1135–1139. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1613.1135 
  73. Roberts, W. (1892). «The Croonian Lectures on the Chemistry and Therapeutics of Uric Acid Gravel and Gout: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 2 (1645): 61–65. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1645.61 
  74. Leech, D.J. (1893). «The Cronian Lectures on the Pharmacological Action and Therapeutic Uses of the Nitrites and Allied Compounds: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 1 (1695): 1305–1311. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1695.1305 
  75. Bywaters, H. W. (1916). «F. W. Pavy» (PDF). Biochemical Journal. 10 (1): 1–4. PMC 1258678  
  76. Marcet, W. (1895). «The Croonian Lectures. Contribution to the History of the Respiration of Man: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 2 (1802): 71–4. PMC 2508434 . PMID 20755641. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1802.71 
  77. Oliver, George (1896). «The Croonian Lectures: A Contribution to the Study of the Blood and the Circulation: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 1 (1849): 1374–1377. PMC 2406999 . PMID 20756271. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1849.1374 
  78. White, W. H. (1897). «The Croonian Lectures on the Means by which the Temperature of the Body is Maintained in Health and Disease: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 2 (1906): 70–73. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1906.70 
  79. Martin, S. (1898). «The Croonian Lectures on the Means by which the Temperature of the Body is Maintained in Health and Disease: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 2 (1957): 11–2. PMC 2407186 . PMID 20757112. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1957.11 
  80. Sainsbury, H. (1900). «Some Points Connected with Sleep, Sleeplessness, and Hypnotics. (Croonian Lectures, Lancet, June and July, 1899.) Bradbury, J. B». The British Journal of Psychiatry. 46 (194): 593–594. doi:10.1192/bjp.46.194.593-a 
  81. Mott, F. W. (1900). «The Croonian Lectures on Degeneration of the Neurone: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 1 (2061): 1582–1590. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2061.1582 
  82. Halliburton, W. D. (1901). «The Croonian Lectures on the Chemical Side of Nervous Activity: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, London, June, 1901». BMJ. 1 (2112): 1536–1538. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2112.1536 
  83. Washbourn, J. W.; Sharman, IM (1902). «The Croonian Lectures on the Natural History and Pathology of Pneumonia». BMJ. 2 (5214): 1704–6. PMC 2402080 . PMID 20760528. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2187.1704 
  84. Beevor, Charles E. (1903). «The Croonian Lectures on Muscular Movements and their representation in the Central Nervous System: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 1 (2218): 12–6. PMC 2513940 . PMID 20760993. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2218.12 
  85. «The Croonian Lectures ON BRIGht's DISEASE AND ITS VARIETIES». The Lancet. 164 (4221): 191–194. 1904. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)03446-8 
  86. Hillier, S.G. (janeiro de 2005). «100 years of hormones: pathway biology as the fifth force in endocrinology». The Journal of Endocrinology. 184 (1): 3–4. PMID 15642777. doi:10.1677/joe.1.06089 
  87. «The Croonian Lectures ON PLAGUE». The Lancet. 170 (4378): 207–212. 1907. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)52847-0 
  88. «The Croonian Lectures ON INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM». The Lancet. 172 (4430): 214–220. 1908. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)50353-5 
  89. Lazarus-Barlow, W. S. (1909). «The Croonian Lectures on the Chemical Side of Nervous Activity: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, London, June, 1901». BMJ. 1 (2530): 1536–8. PMC 2401134 . PMID 20759694. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2530.1536 
  90. G., M. H.; P., E. B. (1932). «Sir Frederick Andrewes. 1859–1932». Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society (1932–1954). 1: 37–44. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1932.0009 
  91. «AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Physicians: HEAD, Sir Henry (1861–1940)». Aim25.ac.uk 
  92. «The Croonian Lectures ON THE PATHOLOGY OF IMMUNITY». The Lancet. 180 (4636): 1–7. 1912. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)52372-7 
  93. Wilson, G (1979). «The Brown Animal Sanatory Institution». Journal of Hygiene. 83 (1): 171–97. PMC 2130092 . PMID 379209. doi:10.1017/s0022172400025948 
  94. «The annual address delivered to the Royal College of Physicians, on April 6, 1914». arcive.ord 
  95. «The Croonian Lectures MODERN ASPECTS OF CERTAIN PROBLEMS IN THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL DISORDERS». The Lancet. 184 (4765): 1451–1464. 1914. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)96665-0 
  96. Bruce, D. (1915). «The Croonian Lectures on Trypanosomes causing disease in man and domestic animals in Central Africa: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London». BMJ. 2 (2845): 48–53. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2845.48 
  97. Adami, J.G. (1917). «The Croonian Lectures on Adaptation and Disease: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, June 14th, 1917». BMJ. 1 (2947): 837–841. PMC 2348612 . PMID 20768630. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2947.837 
  98. Smith, G.Elliot (1919). «Croonian Lectures on the significance of the Cerebral Cortex: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London, June, 1919». BMJ. 1 (3051): 758. PMC 2341469 . PMID 20769521. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3051.758 
  99. Hunt, T. (junho de 1979). «Sir Arthur Hurst. (Born 23 July 1879, died 17 August 1944)». Gut. 20 (6): 463–6. PMC 1412454 . PMID 381126. doi:10.1136/gut.20.6.463 
  100. «Obituary Notices». BMJ. 1 (5591): 582–4. 1968. PMC 1985231 . PMID 4868556. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5591.582 
  101. «Gordon Morgan Holmes». Whonamedit. 29 de dezembro de 1965 
  102. Peters, Rudolph (novembro de 1958). «John Beresford Leathes. 1864–1956». Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4: 185–91. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1958.0016 
  103. Cook, G.C. (2006). «Leonard Rogers KCSI FRCP FRS (1868–1962) and the founding of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine». Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 60 (2): 171–81. PMID 17153749. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2006.0146 
  104. Lewis, Thomas (1926). «The Blood Vessels of the Human Skin». BMJ. 2 (3418): 61–61. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.3418.61 
  105. Bolton, C. (1928). «The Interpretation of Gastric Symptoms». BMJ. 1 (3519): 1030–1033. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3519.1030 
  106. Martin, Charles James (2007). «Charles James Martin, Kt, C.M.G., F.R.C.P., DSc., F.R.S». British Journal of Nutrition. 10 (1): 1–7. PMID 13315918. doi:10.1079/BJN19560003 
  107. «Special Collection». Universiry of Aberdeen 
  108. McNee, J. W. (1932). «Croonian Lectures on Liver and Spleen: Their clinical and pathological associations». BMJ. 1 (3728): 1111–6. PMC 2521030 . PMID 20776903. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3728.1111 
  109. «Book Review». Nature. 134 (3396): 830–831. 1934. doi:10.1038/134830b0 
  110. MacNalty, Arthur S. (1960). «Owen Lambert Vaughan Simpkinson de Wesselow. 21 October 1883 – 6 July 1959». The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 80: 189–195. doi:10.1002/path.1700800124 
  111. «Sir Francis Fraser». BMJ. 27 (3): 449–52. doi:10.1136/hrt.27.3.449 
  112. Harkins, W. (1950). «Students' Style». BMJ. 1 (4653): 611. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4653.611 
  113. Graham, George; Yoffa, D (1940). «Estimations of Blood Volume During Course of Renal Failure». BMJ. 2 (5460): 513–516. PMC 1845642 . PMID 14321225. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4163.513 
  114. «Sir Arthur William Mickle Ellis». Royal College of Physicians 
  115. Symonds, C. P.; Harris, PW; Lessof, MH; Lyne, C (1943). «Singledose dexamethasone suppression test for Cushing's Syndrome». BMJ. 2 (5554): 740–744. PMC 1841769 . PMID 6025982. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4327.740 
  116. Marriott, H. L. (1947). «Water and Salt Depletion: Part III». BMJ. 1 (4497): 328–332. PMC 2052844 . PMID 20247988. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4497.328 
  117. AHC (1986). «Desmond Curban». Psychiatric Bulletin. 10 (4): 95–6. doi:10.1192/pb.10.4.95 
  118. «Munk's Roll details for Eric Benjamin Strauss». Royal College of Physicians 
  119. Daley, Allen (1953). «The Place of the Hospital in a National Health Service.—II:». BMJ. 2 (4830): 243–250. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4830.243 
  120. Burnet, M. (outubro de 1959). «Auto-immune Disease: I. Modern Immunological Concepts». British Medical Journal. 2 (5153): 645–50. PMC 1990526 . PMID 13806210. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5153.645 
  121. «Munk's Roll details for Derek Ernest Denny-Brown». Royal College of Physicians 
  122. McMichael, J. (1961). «Reorientations in Hypertensive Disorders». BMJ. 2 (5262): 1239–1244. PMC 1970307 . PMID 20789269. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5262.1239 
  123. Stuart-Harris, Charles H. (1962). «Viruses of Human Diseases». BMJ. 1 (5295): 1779–1788. PMC 1959159 . PMID 13917942. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5295.1779 
  124. Arnott, W. Melville (1963). «The Lungs in Mitral Stenosis». BMJ. 2 (5360): 765–770. PMC 1872812 . PMID 14065065. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5360.765 
  125. «Members of the Symposium». CIBA Foundateion 
  126. Jones, F. Avery (1969). «Papers and Originals». JSTOR. The British Medical Journal. 2 (5652): 267–273. JSTOR 20396920 
  127. «British Medical Journal-News and Notes». europepmc.org. 3 de agosto de 1968 
  128. Brock, John F. (1972). «NATURE, NURTURE, AND STRESS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE». The Lancet. 299: 701–704. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(72)90226-7 
  129. Hayward, Graham W. (1973). «Infective endocarditis: a changing disease. I». BMJ. 2 (5868): 706–709. PMC 1589747 . PMID 4582052. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5868.706 
  130. Richmond, Caroline (26 de abril de 2006). «Sir Richard Bayliss: Former Physician to the Queen». The Independent. UK 
  131. «William Mann». The Telegraph 
  132. Briggs, Asa. A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London: Volume Four. [S.l.: s.n.] 
  133. Turnberg, L (janeiro de 1991). «Cellular basis of diarrhoea. The Croonian lecture 1989». Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 25 (1): 53–62. PMID 1708825 
  134. «Curriculum Vitae». Arquivado do original em 11 de julho de 2011 
  135. a b c d e f g h «Croonian Lectures (Sadleir Trust)» (PDF). Royal College of Physicians. Arquivado do original (PDF) em 11 de fevereiro de 2015 
  136. http://www.cardionet.hr/eng/journal/curriculum/jcamm.aspPredefinição:Self-published inline
  137. Pelham, H. R. B. (1999). «Intracellular membrane traffic: Getting proteins sorted. The 1999 Croonian Lecture». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 354 (1388): 1471–8. PMC 1692657 . PMID 10515003. doi:10.1098/rstb.1999.0491 
  138. «Prof John Connell's Biography». Debretts 
  139. http://www.thebarkertheory.org/science.phpPredefinição:Self-published inline
  140. «The origins of multiple sclerosis» (PDF). Clinical Medicine. 7 de abril de 2014 
  141. a b «RCP Croonian Lectures». Royal College of Physicins 
  142. «Royal College of Physicians- Events Diary». Royal College of Physicians. Arquivado do original em 23 de dezembro de 2012 
  143. «Royal College of Physicians- Events Diary». Royal College of Physicians. Arquivado do original em 23 de dezembro de 2012 
  144. «Croonian Lectures (Sadleir Trust)» (PDF). Royal College of Physicians. Arquivado do original (PDF) em 8 de abril de 2014 
  145. «Dame Pam Shaw selected for prestigious Croonian Lecture». University of Sheffield. Consultado em 7 de dezembro de 2016 

Ligações externasEditar