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David I
Rei dos Escoceses
Rei da Escócia
Reinado abril ou maio de 1124
a 24 de maio de 1153
Coroação abril ou maio de 1124
Antecessor(a) Alexandre I
Sucessor(a) Malcolm IV
 
Esposa Matilde, Condessa de Huntingdon
Descendência Malcolm da Escócia
Henrique da Escócia
Clarice da Escócia
Hodierna da Escócia
Casa Dunkeld
Nome completo
Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim
Nascimento 1084
Morte 24 de maio de 1153 (69 anos)
  Carlisle, Cúmbria, Inglaterra
Enterro Abadia de Dunfermline, Dunfermline, Fife
Pai Malcolm III da Escócia
Mãe Margarida da Escócia

David I (Gaélico escocês: Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; 108424 de maio de 1153) foi o Rei da Escócia de 1124 até sua morte. Também foi Príncipe dos Cúmbrios entre 1113 e 1124 e também Conde de Northampton e Huntington.[1][2] Era o filho mais velho do rei Malcolm III e de Margarida da Escócia.[3] David passou os primeiros anos de sua vida na Escócia, porém foi forçado a ir para o exílio em 1093 por seu tio Donaldo III.[4] Ele tornou-se parte da corte do rei Henrique I de Inglaterra por volta de 1100, onde foi influenciado pela cultura normanda e anglo-francesa.[5][6]

Quando seu irmão Alexandre I morreu em 1124, David escolheu, com o apoio de Henrique, tomar o Reino da Escócia para si.[7] Ele foi forçado a entrar em conflito com seu sobrinho Malcolm, filho de Alexandre.[8] Derrotá-lo demorou aparentemente dez anos, uma disputa que também acabou por destruir Óengus de Moray. A vitória de David permitiu a expansão de controle para partes mais distantes de seu reino. Depois da morte de Henrique, ele apoiou a reivindicação da filha do rei e sua sobrinha, Matilde de Inglaterra, ao trono inglês.[9] No processo, ele acabou entrando em conflito com o rei Estêvão e acabou conseguindo expandir seu poder para o norte da Inglaterra, mesmo tendo sendo derrotado na Batalha de Standard em 1138.[10]

O termo "Revolução Davidiana" é usado por muitos historiadores para resumir os eventos que ocorreram na Escócia durante seu reinado. Eles incluiram a fundação de Burghs, a implementação de ideiais da reforma gregoriana, a fundação de mosteiros, normanização do governo escocês e a introdução do feudalismo através da imigração de cavaleiros franceses e ingleses.[11][12]

Ver tambémEditar

David I da Escócia
Casa de Dunkeld
1084 – 24 de maio de 1153
Precedido por
Alexandre I
Rei da Escócia
abril ou maio de 1124 – 24 de maio de 1153
Sucedido por
Malcolm IV
 
O Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre David I da Escócia

Referências

  1. See Oram, David, pp. 60–2; Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp. 60–4.
  2. For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 59–63.
  3. Malcolm seems to have had two sons before he married Margaret, presumably by Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Donnchad II was one, and there was another called Domnall who died in 1085, see Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1085.2, here; see also Oram, David, p. 23; and Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, p. 55; the possibility that Máel Coluim had another son, also named Máel Coluim, is open, G. W. S. Barrow, "Malcolm III (d. 1093)".
  4. E.g. John Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, II. 209.
  5. For David's upbringing and transformation of fortune at the Anglo-Norman court, see the partially hypothetical account in Oram, David, pp. 59–72.
  6. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, W. Stubbs (ed.), Rolls Series, no. 90, vol. ii, p. 476; trans. A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, (1908), p. 157.
  7. Oram, David, pp. 70–2.
  8. A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 158.
  9. Oram, David, p. 119.
  10. For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 93–6.
  11. Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", pp. 9–11; Lynch, Scotland: A New History, p. 80.
  12. Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13.

BibliografiaEditar

Fontes primáriasEditar

  • Anderson, Alan Orr (ed.), Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922)
  • idem (ed.), Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers: AD 500–1286, (London, 1908), republished, Marjorie Anderson (ed.) (Stamford, 1991)
  • Barrow, G. W. S. (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153–1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's "Early Scottish Charters", in Regesta Regum Scottorum, Volume I, (Edinburgh, 1960), introductory text, pp. 3–128
  • idem (ed.), The Acts of William I King of Scots 1165–1214 in Regesta Regum Scottorum, Volume II, (Edinburgh, 1971)
  • idem (ed.), The Charters of King David I: The Written acts of David I King of Scots, 1124–1153 and of His Son Henry Earl of Northumberland, 1139–1152, (Woodbridge, 1999)
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen (ed.), The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry, 550–1350, (Edinburgh, 1998)
  • Donaldson, G. (ed.), Scottish Historical Documents, (Edinburgh, 1970)
  • Freeland, Jane Patricia (tr.), and Dutton, Marsha L. (ed.), Aelred of Rievaulx : the lives of the northern saints, (Cistercian Fathers series 56, Kalamazoo, 2005), pp. 45–70
  • Forbes-Leith, William (ed.),Turgot, Life of St Margaret, Queen of Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1884)
  • Lawrie, Sir Archibald (ed.), Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905)
  • MacQueen, John, MacQueen, Winifred and Watt, D. E. R., (eds.), Scotichronicon by Walter Bower, vol. 3, (Aberdeen, 1995)
  • Skene, Felix J. H. (tr.) & Skene, William F. (ed.), John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, (Edinburgh, 1872)

Fontes secundáriasEditar

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