Diferenças entre edições de "Graça preveniente"

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Checkwiki + Ajustes, typos fixed: século 18 → século XVIII utilizando AWB
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(Checkwiki + Ajustes, typos fixed: século 18 → século XVIII utilizando AWB)
'''Graça preveniente''' é uma [[teologia cristã]] enraizada em [[Agostinho de Hipona]].<ref>[[Henry Bettenson]], ''The Later Christian Fathers'' (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), pp. 204-205.</ref> Ela é abraçada primeiramente pelos cristãos [[Arminianismo|Arminianos]] que são influênciados pela teologia de [[John Wesley]], e que foram partedo [[Metodismo|movimento metodista]]. Wesley tipicamente referiu-se a ela na linguagem do século 18XVIII como ''graça preventiva''. Em portugues moderno, a frase ''graça precedente'' deve ter um significado similar.
Graça preveniente é divina graça que precede as decisões humanas. <!--It exists prior to and without reference to anything humans may have done. As humans are corrupted by the effects of [[sin]], prevenient grace allows persons to engage their God-given [[free will]] to choose the salvation offered by God in Jesus Christ or to reject that salvific offer. Whereas Augustine held that prevenient grace cannot be resisted, Wesleyan Arminians believe that it enables, but does not ensure, personal acceptance of the gift of salvation.
== Definição ==
The ''[[United Methodist Book of Discipline]]'' (2004) defines prevenient grace as, "...the…the divine love that surrounds all humanity and precedes any and all of our conscious impulses. This grace prompts our first wish to please God, our first glimmer of understanding concerning God's will, and our 'first slight transient conviction' of having sinned against God. God's grace also awakens in us an earnest longing for deliverance from sin and death and moves us toward repentance and faith."<ref>''The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church - 2004'' (Nashville: United Methodist Publishing House, 2004), Section 1: Our Doctrinal Heritage: Distinctive Wesleyan Emphases.</ref>
The [[Church of the Nazarene]] has made prevenient grace one of its sixteen "Articles of Faith" found in the Nazarene ''Manual''.<ref name="nazarene articles">[{{Citar web |url=http://media.premierstudios.com/nazarene/docs/Manual2005_09.pdf |título=Nazarene Manual 2005-2009] |língua= |autor= |obra= |data= |acessodata=}}</ref> The ''Manual'' declares on behalf of the Church of the Nazarene:
<blockquote>We believe that the human race’s creation in Godlikeness included ability to choose between right and wrong, and that thus human beings were made morally responsible; that through the fall of Adam they became depraved so that they cannot now turn and prepare themselves by their own natural strength and works to faith and calling upon God. But we also believe that the grace of God through Jesus Christ is freely bestowed upon all people, enabling all who will to turn from sin to righteousness, believe on Jesus Christ for pardon and cleansing from sin, and follow good works pleasing and acceptable in His sight.<ref name="nazarene articles"/></blockquote>
Predecessor to the Nazarene Articles of Faith are the [[Articles of Religion (Methodist)|Articles of Religion]], which John Wesley adapted for use by American Methodists. With very similar language between it and Article VII of the ''Manual'', Article VIII states, "The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and works, to faith, and calling upon God; wherefore we have no power to do good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, ''without the grace of God by Christ preventing [preceding] us'', that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will" (emphasis added). The article is official doctrine not only for The [[United Methodist Church]], and its counterpart for the Church of the Nazarene, but for many other Wesleyan denominations as well, such as the [[African Methodist Episcopal Church]], [[African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church]], the [[Methodist Church of Great Britain|British Methodist Church]], and other denominations associated with the [[Holiness movement]].
[[Thomas Oden]] of [[Drew University]] defines prevenient grace as, "...the…the grace that begins to enable one to choose further to cooperate with saving grace. By offering the will the restored capacity to respond to grace, the person then may freely and increasingly become an active, willing participant in receiving the conditions for justification."<ref>''John Wesley's Scriptural Christianity'' (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), p. 243.</ref>
== Em Wesley ==
No sermão de John Wesley "On Working Out Our Own Salvation" (sermão #85), Wesley stated that prevenient grace elicits, "...the…the first wish to please God, the first dawn of light concerning His will, and the first slight transient conviction of having sinned against Him."
Wesley insisted on prevenient grace as a solution to two great problems in Christianity: the belief of [[original sin]] and the [[Protestantism|Protestant]] [[doctrine]] of [[Justification (theology)|salvation by grace alone]]. Developing the idea based upon the witness of [[Bible|Scripture]], Wesley felt that prevenient grace enabled the doctrines of original sin and salvation by grace to co-exist while still maintaining God's sovereignty and holy character as well as human freedom.
== Na teologia Católica Romana ==
The issue of prevenient grace was discussed in the fifth chapter of the sixth session of the [[Council of Trent]] :
''The Synod furthermore declares, that in adults, the beginning of the said Justification is to be derived from the prevenient grace of God, through Jesus Christ, that is to say, from His vocation, whereby, without any merits existing on their parts, they are called; that so they, who by sins were alienated from God, may be disposed through His quickening and assisting grace, to convert themselves to their own justification, by freely assenting to and co-operating with that said grace''. <ref>[{{Citar web |url=http://history.hanover.edu/texts/trent/ct06.html |título=Council of Trent] |língua= |autor= |obra= |data= |acessodata=}}</ref>
== Na Escritura ==
Scriptures used to support the doctrine include (NT quotes from Wesley's translation, unless noted):
:[[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]] 1:5 ([[English Standard Version|ESV]]): "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you...you…"
:Jeremiah 31:3 ([[King James Version|KJV]]): "...I…I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with [[lovingkindness]] have I drawn thee."
:[[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]] 34:11, 16 ([[English Standard Version|ESV]]): "For thus says the Lord {{GOD}}: Behold, I, I myself will search for my sheep and will seek them out...Iout…I will seek the lost, and I will bring back the strayed, and I will bind up the injured, and I will strengthen the weak...weak…"
:[[Gospel of Luke|Luke]] 19:10: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."
:[[Gospel of John|John]] 6:44: "No man can come unto me, unless the Father who hath sent me, draw him...him…"
:[[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]] 2:4: "...the…the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance...repentance…"
:[[Epistle to the Philippians|Philippians]] 2:12-13: "...work…work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it is God that worketh in you according to his good pleasure, both to will and to do."
:[[I João]] 4:19: "Nós amomos ele, porque ele nos amou primeiro."
== Nos hinos metodistas ==
Most Methodist hymnals have a section with hymns concerning prevenient grace, most recently ''The United Methodist Hymnal'' (1989). One of the best known hymns written about the doctrine is [[Charles Wesley|Charles Wesley's]] "Come, Sinners, to the Gospel Feast", which includes the lines, "Ye need not one be left behind, ''for God hath bid all humankind...thehumankind…the invitation is to all''..." (emphasis added).
Charles Wesley's "Sinners, Turn: Why Will You Die" continues the theme, "Sinners, turn: why will you die? God, the Spirit, asks you why; ''he, who all your lives hath strove, wooed you to embrace his love''" (emphasis added). His hymn "Depth of Mercy" offers a prayer to God, "''Now incline me to repent'', let me now my sins lament, now my foul revolt deplore, weep, believe, and sin no more" (emphasis added).
* "'Você não deve ter me chamado senão eu teria sido chamado por você,' disse o Leão." - de ''A Cadeira Prateada'' por [[C. S. Lewis]]
* "Every time we begin to pray to Jesus it is the Holy Spirit who draws us on the way of prayer by his prevenient grace." #2670 [[Catecismo da Igreja Católica]]
* "That grace is preceded by no merits. A reward is due to good works, if they are performed; but grace, which is not due, precedes, that they may be done [St. Prosper]." Can. 18. #191 Council of Orange II A.D. 529 [[Councils of Orange]]
== {{Bibliografia}} ==
* Sermon #44: [http://gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/serm-044.stm "Original Sin"] by [[John Wesley]]
* Sermon #85: [http://gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/serm-085.stm "On Working out Our Own Salvation"] by [[John Wesley]]
* ''Responsible Grace: John Wesley's Practical Theology'' (1994) by Randy Maddox, chapters 3-7 (ISBN 0-687-00334-2)
* ''Relational Holiness: Responding to the Call of Love'' (2005) by Thomas Jay Oord and Michael Lodahl (Beacon Hill Press) (ISBN 0-8341-2182-4)
* ''John Wesley's Scriptural Christianity: A Plain Exposition of His Teaching on Christian Doctrine'' (1994) by [[Thomas Oden]], chapter 8: "On Grace and Predestination", pp. &nbsp;243–252 (ISBN 0-310-75321-X)
* ''The United Methodist Hymnal'' (1989) "Prevenient Grace" section, hymns 337-360 (ISBN 0-687-43134-4)
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