Diferenças entre edições de "Graça preveniente"

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{{Arminianismo}}
 
'''Graça preveniente''' é uma [[teologia cristã]] enraizada em [[Agostinho de Hipona]].<ref>[[Henry Bettenson]], ''The Later Christian Fathers'' (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), pp. 204-205.</ref> Ela é abraçada primeiramente pelos cristãos [[Arminianismo|arminianos]] que são influênciados pela teologia de [[JohnJacó WesleyArmínio]], e que foram parte doou [[Metodismo|movimentoJohn metodistaWesley]]. Wesley tipicamente referiu-se a ela na linguagem do século XVIII como ''graça preventiva''. Em portugues moderno, a frase ''graça precedente'' deve ter um significado similar.
 
Graça preveniente é [[Graça|divina graça]] que precede asa decisõesdecisão humanashumana. <!--ItEla existsexiste priorantes tode ande withoutsem referencereferência to anything humansa mayqualquer havefeito donehumano. Como os homens foram corrompidos pelo efeito do [[pecado]], a graça preveniente permite as pessoas toexercerem engageo theirseu God''dado-givenpor-Deus'' [[livre-arbítrio]], apodendo então, escolher a salvação oferecida por Deus em Jesus Cristo ou rejeitar a oferta salvífica. Whereas Agostinho helddisse thatque prevenienta graça preveniente gracenão cannotpode beser resistedresistida, arminianos wesleyanos acreditam que itela enablespermite, butmas doesnão not ensureassegura, a aceitação pessoal do dom da salvação.
 
== Definição ==<!--
O ''[[United Methodist Book of Discipline]]'' (2004) define graça preveniente como, "…o amor divino que cerca toda humanidade e precede cada um de nossos impulsos conscientes. Essa graça prompts our first wish to please God, our first glimmer of understanding concerning God's will, and our 'first slight transient conviction' of having sinned against God. God's grace also awakens in us an earnest longing for deliverance from sin and death and moves us toward repentance and faith."<ref>''The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church - 2004'' (Nashville: United Methodist Publishing House, 2004), Section 1: Our Doctrinal Heritage: Distinctive Wesleyan Emphases.</ref>
 
A [[Igreja do Nazareno]] fez da graça preveniente um dos seus sessenta "Artigos de Fé", encontrada no ''Manual''.<ref name="nazarene articles">{{Citar web |url=http://m nazarenoedia.premierstudios.com/nazarene/docs/Manual2005_09.pdf |título=Nazarene Manual 2005-2009 |língua= |autor= |obra= |data= |acessodata=}}</ref> O ''Manual'' declara sobre o interesse da Igreja do Nazareno:
<blockquote>WeCremos believe thatque the human race’s creation in Godlikeness included abilityabilidade de escolher toentre chooseo betweencerto righte ando wrongerrado, and that thus human beings were made morally responsible; that through the fall of Adam they became depraved so that they cannot now turn and prepare themselves by their own natural strength and works to faith and calling upon God. But we also believe that the grace of God through Jesus Christ is freely bestowed upon all people, enabling all who will to turn from sin to righteousness, believe on Jesus Christ for pardon and cleansing from sin, and follow good works pleasing and acceptable in His sight.<ref name="nazarene articles"/></blockquote>
 
Predecessor to the Nazarene Articles of Faith are the [[Articles of Religion (Methodist)|Articles of Religion]], which John Wesley adapted for use by American Methodists. With very similar language between it and Article VII of the ''Manual'', Article VIII states, "The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and works, to faith, and calling upon God; wherefore we have no power to do good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, ''without the grace of God by Christ preventing [preceding] us'', that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will" (emphasis added). The article is official doctrine not only for The [[United Methodist Church]], and its counterpart for the Church of the Nazarene, but for many other Wesleyan denominations as well, such as the [[African Methodist Episcopal Church]], [[African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church]], the [[Methodist Church of Great Britain|British Methodist Church]], and other denominations associated with the [[movimento de santidade]].
 
[[Thomas Oden]] da [[Universidade de Drew]] define graça preveniente como, "…the…a gracegraça thatque begins to enable one to choose further to cooperate with saving grace. By offering the will the restored capacity to respond to grace, the person then may freely and increasingly become an active, willing participant in receiving the conditions for justification."<ref>''John Wesley's Scriptural Christianity'' (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), p. 243.</ref> -->
 
=== Em Wesley Armínio===
 
Armínio afirmou a [[total depravação]], mas acreditava que somente a graça preveniente permitiria que os homens escolhessem a salvação:
 
<blockquote>
Concernente a graça e livre-arbítrio, isto é o que eu ensino conforme as Escrituras e o consentimento ortodoxo: o livre-arbítrio é incapaz de iniciar ou aperfeiçoar alguma bondade verdadeira e espiritual, sem a graça... Essa graça [''prœvenit''] vem antes, acompanha, e segue; anima, assiste, opera em nossa vontade, e coopera para que a nossa vontade não torne-se vã.<ref>Jacobus Arminius, ''The Works of James Arminius, D.D., Formerly Professor of Divinity in the University of Leyden'' (Auburn, NY: Derby and Miller, 1853), 4:472.</REF>
</blockquote>
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=== Em Wesley ===
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Wesley insisted on prevenient grace as a solution to two great problems in Christianity: the belief of [[original sin]] and the [[Protestantism|Protestant]] [[doctrine]] of [[Justification (theology)|salvation by grace alone]]. Developing the idea based upon the witness of [[Bible|Scripture]], Wesley felt that prevenient grace enabled the doctrines of original sin and salvation by grace to co-exist while still maintaining God's sovereignty and holy character as well as human freedom.
 
=== Na teologia Católica Romana ===
A questão da graça preveniente foi discutida no capítulo cinquenta da sexta sessão do [[Concílio de Trento]]:
 
''O Sínodo ademais declara, que em adultos, o início da dita Justificação is to be derivedderivada da graça preveniente de Deus, através de Jesus ChristCristo, that is to say, from His vocation, whereby, without any merits existing on their parts, they are called; that so they, who by sins were alienated from God, may be disposed through His quickening and assisting grace, to convert themselves to their own justification, by freely assenting to and co-operating with that said grace''.<ref>{{Citar web |url=http://history.hanover.edu/texts/trent/ct06.html |título=Concílio de Trento |língua= |autor= |obra= |data= |acessodata=}}</ref>
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=== Na Escritura ===
As partes usadas das Escrituras que dão suporte a doutrina incluem as passagens abaixo:
 
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