Sacerdócio de todos os crentes: diferenças entre revisões

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{{em tradução|língua=inglesa}}
O '''sacerdócio universalluniversal''' ou o '''sacerdócio de todos os crentes''', como vem a ser conhecido nos dias atuais, é uma doutrina cristã que acredita-se ser derivada de várias passagens do [[Novo Testamento]].
==Priesthood in non-Protestant traditions==
==Sacerdócio em tradições não-protestantes==
[[Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]], [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox]] and [[Anglican communion|Anglican]] Christians traditionally believe that 1 Peter 2:9 gives responsibility to all believers for the preservation and propagation of the [[Gospel]] and the Church, as distinct from the [[liturgical]] and [[sacrament]]al roles of the [[Holy Orders|ordained]] [[priest]]hood and [[consecration|consecrated]] [[bishop|episcopate]] (see [[Apostolic Succession]]). They and other Christians also see the ministerial priesthood as being necessary in accordance with the words of the [[eucharist]]ic liturgy: "Do this in memory (''anamnesis'') of me" ([[Gospel of Luke]] 22:19-20; [[First Corinthians]] 11:23-25).
The dogmatic constitution ''[[Lumen Gentium]]'' of the [[Second Vatican Council]] specifically highlights the priesthood of all believers. It teaches that the Church's relationship with God is independent of whatever [[Holy Orders|ordination]] people have received, as evidenced by the guidelines and rubrics for personal prayer when no priest is present. Such Churches have always taught implicitly that a Christian's personal relationship with God is independent of whatever [[Holy Orders|ordination]] they have received.
==História dentro do Protestantismo==
==History within Protestantism==
It is a foundational concept of [[Protestantism]].<ref>"Protestantism originated in the 16th-century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the supremacy of Holy Scripture in matters of faith and order" ("The Protestant Heritage." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Sept. 2007 []</ref> While [[Martin Luther]] did not use the exact phrase "priesthood of all believers," he adduces a general priesthood in Christendom in his 1520 ''[[To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation]]'' in order to dismiss the medieval view that Christians in the present life were to be divided into two classes: "spiritual" and "temporal." He put forward the doctrine that all baptized Christians are "priests" and "spiritual" in the sight of [[God]]:
<blockquote>That the pope or bishop anoints, makes tonsures, ordains, consecrates, or dresses differently from the laity, may make a hypocrite or an idolatrous oil-painted icon, but it in no way makes a Christian or spiritual human being. In fact, we are all consecrated priests through Baptism, as St. Peter in 1 Peter 2[:9] says, "You are a royal priesthood and a priestly kingdom," and Revelation [5:10], "Through your blood you have made us into priests and kings."<ref>Martin Luther, ''Weimar Ausgabe'', vol. 6, p. 407, lines 19-25 as quoted in Timothy Wengert, "The Priesthood of All Believers and Other Pious Myths," page 12 []{{Dead link|date=May 2010}}.</ref></blockquote>
Some groups during the Reformation believed that priesthood authority was still needed, but was lost from the earth. [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] believed, "There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking." Another group, the [[Seekers]], believed that the Roman Catholic Church had lost its authority through corruption and waited for Christ to restore his true church and authority.
==Problemas com traduções==
==Problems with translations==
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Much of the doctrinal confusion on this matter is caused by the difference between the [[Ancient Greek|Greek]] words ''ἱερεύς'' (''hiereus'' meaning "sacred one") and [[presbyter|''πρεσβύτερος'']] (''presbyteros'' meaning "one with elderhood"), which are usually both translated in English with the word "[[priest#In_Christianity|priest]]". The former term refers to the sacrificial ritual leaders of Judaism, the [[kohen|kohanim]], and to those holding the office of conducting sacrifices in ancient [[pagan]] temples, whereas the latter term refers to an acknowledged elder of a community.
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