Diferenças entre edições de "Espectroscopia NMR"

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[[Image:HWB-NMR - 900MHz - 21.2 Tesla.jpg|thumb|right|300px| A 900MHz NMR instrument with a 21.2&nbsp;[[Tesla (unit)|T]] magnet at [[Henry Wellcome Building for NMR|HWB-NMR]]<!--http://www.nmr.bham.ac.uk/-->, Birmingham, UK]]
'''Espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear''', mais conhecida como '''espectroscopia NMR''', é uma técnica de pesquisa que explora as propriedades [[Magnetismo|magnéticas]] de certos [[Núcleo atômico|núcleos atômicos]] para determinar propriedades físicas ou químicas de [[átomo]]s<!-- o the [[molecule]]s in which they are ucontained. It relies on the phenomenon of [[nuclear magnetic resonance]] and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules.
 
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Most frequently, NMR spectroscopy is used by chemists and biochemists to investigate the properties of [[organic molecule]]s, though it is applicable to any nucleus possessing [[Spin (physics)|spin]]. This can range from small compounds analyzed with 1-dimensional [[proton NMR|proton]] or [[carbon-13 NMR]] to large [[protein]]s or [[nucleic acid]]s using 3 or 4-dimensional techniques. The impact of NMR spectroscopy on the natural sciences has been substantial, and can be applied to a wide variety of samples in [[solution]] and [[Solid-state chemistry|solid state]].
 
Modern analysis software allows analysis of the size of peaks to understand how many protons give rise to the peak. This is known as [[integral|integration]]&mdash;a mathematical process which calculates the area under a curve. The analyst must integrate the peak and not measure its height because the peaks also have ''width''&mdash;and thus its size is dependent on its area not its height. However, it should be mentioned that the number of protons, or any other observed nucleus, is only proportional to the intensity, or the integral, of the NMR signal, in the very simplest one-dimensional NMR experiments. In more elaborate experiments, for instance, experiments typically used to obtain [[carbon-13]] NMR spectra, the integral of the signals depends on the relaxation rate of the nucleus, and its scalar and dipolar coupling constants. Very often these factors are poorly known - therefore, the integral of the NMR signal is very difficult to interpret in more complicated NMR experiments.
 
===J-coupling===<!-- This section is linked from [[Hyperfine coupling]] -->
{{Main|J-coupling}}
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{{BranchesofSpectroscopy}}
{{List of NMR solvents}}
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[[Category:Espectroscopia]]
[[Category:Ressonância magnética nuclear]]
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