Lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo: diferenças entre revisões

1 280 bytes adicionados ,  02h49min de 28 de maio de 2012
Desfeita a edição 30410279 de -> WP:POV
(Desfeita a edição 30410504 de
(Desfeita a edição 30410279 de -> WP:POV)
Esta é uma lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo e que ainda estão em operação.
Esta é uma lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo e que ainda estão em operação.<ref>Bender, Thomas (1991), The university and the city: from medieval origins to the present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 13-14, ISBN 9780195067750, "The statement that all universities are descended either directly or by migration from these three prototypes [Oxford, Paris, and Bologna] depends, of course, on one's definition of a university. And I must define a university very strictly here. A university is something more than a center of higher education and study. One must reserve the term university for—and I'm quoting Rashdall here—"a scholastic guild, whether of masters or students, engaged in higher education and study," which was later defined, after the emergence of universities, as studium generale.</ref>
{| class="wikitable"
|- bgcolor="#efefef"
!align="center"| Nome !! Cidade Sede !! País !! Ano de Fundação !! align="center"| Comentários
| [[Universidade de Karueein]] || align="left" |{{MARb}} [[Fez]] || align="left" | [[Marrocos]] || align="center" | 859 || <ref name=EB>{{cite web|title=Qarawiyin|url=|publisher=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=8 December 2011}}</ref><ref name=oxford>The Report: Morocco 2009 - Page 252 Oxford Business Group "... yet for many Morocco's cultural, artistic and spiritual capital remains Fez. The best-preserved ... School has been in session at Karaouine University since 859, making it the world's oldest continuously operating university. "</ref><ref name="founding">{{cite book |last=Esposito |first=John |authorlink=John L. Esposito |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=The Oxford Dictionary of Islam |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |edition= |series= |date= |year=2003 |month= |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= |language= |isbn=0-1951-2559-2 |oclc= |doi= |id= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=|page=328 }}</ref><ref>''Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World'', Publisher: Marshall Cavendish, 2010 [] p.161</ref><ref>''Hidden Giants'', 2nd Edition, by Sethanne Howard, Publisher: 2008 [] p.60</ref><ref>''Civilization: The West and the Rest'' by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 - ISBN 9781846142734</ref><ref>''The marketisation of higher education and the student as consumer'' by Mike Molesworth & Richard Scullion, Publisher: Taylor & Francis 2010 [] p.26</ref><ref>''Frommer's Morocco'' by Darren Humphrys, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons 2010 [] p.223</ref>
| [[Universidade de Al-Azhar]] || align="left" |{{EGIb}} [[Cairo]] || align="left" | [[Egito]] || align="center" | 988 ||
| [[Universidade de Bolonha]] || align="left" |{{ITAb}} [[Bolonha]] || align="left" | [[Itália]] || align="center" | 1088 ||