Lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo: diferenças entre revisões

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Esta é uma lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo e que ainda estão em operação.
Esta é uma lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo e que ainda estão em operação. A universidade é considerada uma criação clássica da [[Idade Média|Europa medieval]].<ref>Sanz, Nuria; Bergan, Sjur (eds.): ''The Heritage of European Universities'', Council of Europe, 2002, ISBN 978-92-871-4960-2, p.&nbsp;119: {{cita|In many respects, if there is any institution that Europe can most justifiably claim as one of its inventions, it is the university. As proof thereof and without wishing here to recount the whole history of the birth of universities, it will suffice to describe briefly how the invention of universities took the form of a polycentric process of specifically European origin.}}</ref><ref>[[:de:Walter Rüegg|Rüegg, Walter]]: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): ''A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages'', Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp.&nbsp;XIX–XX: {{cita|The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution ''par excellence''. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realization of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity...No other European institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done. The degrees awarded by European universities – the bachelor's degree, the licentiate, the master's degree, and the doctorate – have been adopted in the most diverse societies throughout the world. The four medieval faculties of artes – variously called philosophy, letters, arts, arts and sciences, and humanities –, law, medicine, and theology have survived and have been supplemented by numerous disciplines, particularly the social sciences and technological studies, but they remain none the less at the heart of universities throughout the world. Even the name of the universitas, which in the Middle Ages was applied to corporate bodies of the most diverse sorts and was accordingly applied to the corporate organization of teachers and students, has in the course of centuries been given a more particular focus: the university, as a universitas litterarum, has since the eighteenth century been the intellectual institution which cultivates and transmits the entire corpus of methodically studied intellectual disciplines.}}</ref><ref name="Verger 2003">[[:fr:Jacques Verger|Verger, Jacques]]: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): ''A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages'', Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp.&nbsp;35–76 (35): {{cita|No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances.}}</ref><ref>Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", ''Studia Islamica'', No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264): {{cita|Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere.}}</ref><ref>Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (eds.): ''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages'', Vol. 1, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1, p.&nbsp;1484 ("university")</ref><ref>''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'': [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/618194/university "University"], 2012, retrieved 26 July 2012</ref><ref>''[[:en:The Catholic Encyclopedia|The Catholic Encyclopedia]]'': [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm "Universities"], Vol. 15, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1912, retrieved 27 July 2012</ref><ref>''[[:en:Lexikon des Mittelalters|Lexikon des Mittelalters]]'': "Universität. Die Anfänge", Vol. 8, Cols 1249–1250, Metzler, Stuttgart, [1977]–1999</ref><ref>''[[:en:Brill's New Pauly|Brill's New Pauly]]'': "University", Brill, 2012</ref>
 
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!lignalign="center"| Nome !! Cidade Sede !! País !! Ano de Fundação !! align="center"| Comentários
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| [[Universidade de Karueein]] || align="left" |{{MARb}} [[Fez]] || align="left" | [[Marrocos]] || align="center" | 859<small><br/>(disputado)</small> || Ao contrário de uma madrassa, a Universidade de Al-Karaouine dispensa uma educação geral. Reconhecida como a mais antiga universidade do mundo pelo, Guinness, [[UNESCO]] e alguns especialistas<ref name=EB>{{cite web|title=Qarawiyin|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/485494/Qarawiyin|publisher=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=8 December 2011}}</ref><ref name=oxford>The Report: Morocco 2009 - Page 252 Oxford Business Group "... yet for many Morocco's cultural, artistic and spiritual capital remains Fez. The best-preserved ... School has been in session at Karaouine University since 859, making it the world's oldest continuously operating university. "</ref><ref name="founding">{{cite book |last=Esposito |first=John |authorlink=John L. Esposito |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=The Oxford Dictionary of Islam |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |edition= |series= |date= |year=2003 |month= |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= |language= |isbn=0-1951-2559-2 |oclc= |doi= |id= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=|page=328 }}</ref><ref>''Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World'', Publisher: Marshall Cavendish, 2010 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Zp_5IydPGgC&pg=PA161#v=onepage&q&f=false] p.161</ref><ref>''Hidden Giants'', 2nd Edition, by Sethanne Howard, Publisher: Lulu.com 2008 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5yKGa8WLirkC&pg=PA60#v=onepage&q&f=false] p.60</ref><ref>''Civilization: The West and the Rest'' by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 - ISBN 9781846142734</ref><ref>''The marketisation of higher education and the student as consumer'' by Mike Molesworth & Richard Scullion, Publisher: Taylor & Francis 2010 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u457urHK09YC&pg=PA26#v=onepage&q&f=false] p.26</ref><ref>''Frommer's Morocco'' by Darren Humphrys, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons 2010 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OfcnGQxF42wC&pg=PA223#v=onepage&q&f=false] p.223</ref>, mas isso não é um consenso. Alguns historiadores, como [[:en:Abu al-Hasan Ali al-Jaznai|Al-Jaznai]]<ref>Al-Jaznaï, Zahrat al-Âs, trad. Alfred Bel, Publ. Faculté des lettres d’Alger, F59, 1923, p.7</ref> (seculo XIV) e [[:en:Évariste Lévi-Provençal|Lévi-Provençal]]<ref>Évariste Lévi-Provençal, Les historiens des Chorfas suivi de La fondation de Fès, Maisonneuve, Paris, 2001.</ref> (seculo XX), indicam que se tornou uma universidade no seculo XIII. Outros especialistas<ref>Sanz, Nuria; Bergan, Sjur (eds.): ''The Heritage of European Universities'', Council of Europe, 2002, ISBN 978-92-871-4960-2, p.&nbsp;119</ref><ref>[[:de:Walter Rüegg|Rüegg, Walter]]: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): ''A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages'', Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp.&nbsp;XIX–XX</ref><ref name="Verger 2003">[[:fr:Jacques Verger|Verger, Jacques]]: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): ''A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages'', Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp.&nbsp;35–76 (35)</ref><ref>Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", ''Studia Islamica'', No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264)</ref><ref>Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (eds.): ''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages'', Vol. 1, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1, p.&nbsp;1484 ("university")</ref><ref>''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'': [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/618194/university "University"], 2012, retrieved 26 July 2012</ref><ref>''[[:en:The Catholic Encyclopedia|The Catholic Encyclopedia]]'': [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm "Universities"], Vol. 15, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1912, retrieved 27 July 2012</ref><ref>''[[:en:Lexikon des Mittelalters|Lexikon des Mittelalters]]'': "Universität. Die Anfänge", Vol. 8, Cols 1249–1250, Metzler, Stuttgart, [1977]–1999</ref><ref>''[[:en:Brill's New Pauly|Brill's New Pauly]]'': "University", Brill, 2012</ref>, enquanto que a universidade é um conceito cristão europeu, não vê-lo como uma universidade antes do século XX.
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| [[Universidade de Al-Azhar]] || align="left" |{{EGIb}} [[Cairo]] || align="left" | [[Egito]] || align="center" | 988<ref name="Britannica article">http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/46851/al-Azhar-University</ref><small><br/>(disputado)</small> || Alguns especialistas que consideram que a universidade é um conceito cristão europeu não vê-lo como uma universidade antes do século XX. <ref>Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX</ref><ref>Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76</ref><ref>Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 </ref>
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| [[Universidade de Bolonha]] || align="left" |{{ITAb}} [[Bolonha]] || align="left" | [[Itália]] || align="center" | 1088 ||
[[it:Lista delle università più antiche]]
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