Diferenças entre edições de "Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly"

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[[Ficheiro:Barclay de Tolly (Dawe).jpg|thumb|200px|Retrato de Barclay de Tolly na Galeria Militar do [[Palácio de Inverno]], por [[George Dawe]].]]
O [[Príncipe]] '''Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly''' ([[27 de dezembro]] de [[1761]] — [[26 de maio]] de [[1818]]) (em [[alfabeto cirílico]]: Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) foi um [[Marechal]] e Ministro de [[Guerra]] russo durante a [[Campanha da Rússia (1812)|Invasão Napoleônica à Rússia]], em [[1812]], e as subseqüentessubsequentes campanhas do exército russo na [[Europa]].
 
== Início de Carreira ==
 
Barclay de Tolly, o mais ilustre membro do [[Clã Barclay]], da [[Escócia]], <!--[[Scotland|Scottish]] [[Clan Barclay]],--> nasceu em Pamūšis<ref>[http://www.old.mil.ru/articles/article9054.shtml Biografia no Website oficial do Ministério de Defesa Russo]</ref><ref>[http://www.panrs.lt/leidiniai/petras/2006/detolis.pdf Famoso Líder Russo é Lituano]</ref>, no [[Grão-Ducado da [[Lituânia]], então pertencente aoà "[[commonwealth]]"República [[Polônia|polonêsdas Duas Nações]]-lituano (atualmente, distrito de [[Pakruojis]], na Lituânia), e cresceu na província báltica da Livônia, que em seguida pertenceu à Rússia Imperial e é, hoje, parte da [[Estônia]] e da [[Letônia]]. A data de nascimento comumentemais aceitaconsensual, 27 de dezembro, de 1761, é na verdade o dia de seu batismo na igreja [[luteranismo|luterana]] da cidade de [[Žeimelis]].<ref>[http://www.liuteronai.lt/istorija_teologija/kalendoriai/lat_2000.htm A Igreja Evangélica Luterana da Lituânia]</ref> Embora falasse [[Alemanha|alemão]], Barclay de Tolly descendia de [[Escócia|escoceses]] que viviam na Livônia desde o [[século XVII]]. Seu avô fora prefeito de [[Riga]], seu pai pertencera à nobreza russa e Barclay entrou prematuramente no exército imperial russo.
 
Entre [[1788]] e [[1789]], Barclay lutou contra o [[Império Otomano]], ocasião em que se destacou entre os militares nas tomadas de [[Ochakov]] e [[Akkerman]]. Em [[1790]], lutou contra os [[Suécia|suecos]] e, quatro anos mais tarde, contra os [[Polônia|poloneses]]. Tornou-se coronel em [[1798]] e major-general em [[1799]].
 
Na guerra de [[1806]] contra [[Napoleão Bonaparte]], Barclay destacou-se na [[Batalha de Pultusk]], em dezembro de 1806, e foi ferido na [[Batalha de Eylau]], em [[7 de fevereiro]] de [[1807]], ocasião em que foi promovido a [[tenente-general]].
 
Após um período de convalescênciaconvalescença, Barclay retornou ao exército para comandar, em [[1808]], operações contra os suecos durante a [[Guerra Finlandesa]]. Em [[1809]], ganhou reputação entre os europeus por ter marchado rapidamente e de forma ousada sobre o [[Golfo de Bótnia]], que estava congelado. Isto permitiu a Barclay que surpreendesse seus inimigos e anexasse a Suécia e acapturasse [[Umeå]].<!--After a period of convalescence, Barclay returned to the army and in 1808 commanded operations against the Swedes during the [[Finnish War]]. In [[1809]] he won a European reputation by a rapid and daring march over the frozen [[Gulf of Bothnia]], which allowed him to surprise the enemy and seize [[Umeå]] in [[Sweden]]. For this exploit, immortalized by the Russian poet [[Evgeny Baratynsky|Baratynsky]], he was made [[Full General]] and [[Governor-General of Finland]]. A year later, he became [[Minister of War]], retaining the post until 1813.
<!--For this exploit, immortalized by the Russian poet [[Evgeny Baratynsky|Baratynsky]], he was made [[Full General]] and [[Governador-Geral da Finlândia]]. A year later, he became [[Ministro da guerra]], retaining the post until 1813.
 
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== Napoleon's invasion ==
== Invasão napoleónica ==
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During Napoleon's Invasion of Russia in 1812 Barclay assumed the supreme command of the 1st Army of the West, the largest of the Russian armies facing Napoleon. He proposed the now famous [[scorched earth]] tactic of drawing the enemy deep into one's own territory and retreated to the village of [[Tsaryovo-Zaimishche]] betweenentre [[MoscowMoscovo]] ande [[Smolensk]].
 
Nevertheless, the Russians keenly opposed the appointment of a foreigner as commander-in-chief, while his rivals spread rumours of him being Napoleon's agent. After Barclay was forced by his subordinates and the tsar to engage Napoleon at [[Battle of Smolensk (1812)|Smolensk]] (17 - [[18 August]] [[1812]]) and suffered defeat, the great outcry caused him to resign his command and take a subordinate place under the veteran [[Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov|Kutuzov]].
 
Barclay commanded the right flank at the [[BattleBatalha ofde Borodino]] ([[7 Septemberde setembro]] de [[1812]]) with great valor and presence of mind and during the celebrated council at [[Fili (Moscow)|Fili]] advised Kutuzov to surrender unfortified Moscow to the enemy. His illness made itself known at that time and he was forced to leave the army soon afterwards.
 
After Napoleon was driven from Russia, the eventual success of Barclay's tactics made him a romantic hero, misunderstood by his contemporaries and rejected by the court. His popularity soared, and his honor was restored by the tsar.
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== Campanhas no estrangeiro ==
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Barclay was re-employed in the field and took part in the campaign in [[GermanyAlemanha]]. After Kutuzov's death, he once again became commander-in-chief of the Russian forces at the [[Battle of Bautzen]] ([[21 Mayde maio]] de [[1813]]), and in this capacity heserviu served atna [[BattleBatalha ofde Dresden|Dresden]] (26 - [[27 Augustde agosto]] [[1813]]), [[BattleBatalha ofde Kulm|Kulm]] (29 - [[30 Augustagosto]] de [[1813]]) ande [[BattleBatalha ofde Leipzig|Leipzig]] (16 - [[19 Octoberde outubro]] de [[1813]]). In the latter battle he commanded a central part of the Allied forces so effectively that the tsar bestowed upon him the title of [[count]].
 
Barclay took part in the invasion of [[FranceFrança]] inem [[1814]] and commanded the taking of [[Paris]], receiving the [[Baton (symbol)|baton]] of a [[Field Marshal]] in reward. In [[1815]] he again served as commander-in-chief of the Russian army which invaded France, and was created Prince at the close of the war.
== Foreign campaigns ==
 
Barclay was re-employed in the field and took part in the campaign in [[Germany]]. After Kutuzov's death, he once again became commander-in-chief of the Russian forces at the [[Battle of Bautzen]] ([[21 May]] [[1813]]), and in this capacity he served at [[Battle of Dresden|Dresden]] (26 - [[27 August]] [[1813]]), [[Battle of Kulm|Kulm]] (29 - [[30 August]] [[1813]]) and [[Battle of Leipzig|Leipzig]] (16 - [[19 October]] [[1813]]). In the latter battle he commanded a central part of the Allied forces so effectively that the tsar bestowed upon him the title of [[count]].
 
Barclay took part in the invasion of [[France]] in [[1814]] and commanded the taking of [[Paris]], receiving the [[Baton (symbol)|baton]] of a [[Field Marshal]] in reward. In [[1815]] he again served as commander-in-chief of the Russian army which invaded France, and was created Prince at the close of the war.
 
Barclay de Tolly diedmorreu atem [[Insterburg]] inna [[PrussiaPrússia]] (nowhoje [[RussiaRússia]]) onem [[26 Mayde maio]], de [[1818]] ([[{{calendário juliano|14 May]],de Old Stylemaio|1818}}) on his way from his Estonian manor to Germany, where he wanted to renew his health. His remains were embalmed and put into the mausoleum built to a design by [[Apollon Shchedrin]] and [[Vasily Demut-Malinovsky]] in 1832 in Jõgeveste (in [[Helme Commune(comuna)|Helme Vald]], [[ValgaCondado Countyde Valga|Valgamaa]], [[EstoniaEstónia]]).
 
A grand statue of him was erected in front of the [[KazanCatedral CathedralKazan]] in St Petersburg on behest of [[EmperorImperador NicholasNicolau I]]. There are also a modern statue in [[Riga]], a bust monument in [[Tartu]], and the so-called "Barclay's leaning house" in Tartu (which was actually acquired by his widow after his death).
 
After extinction of the Barclay de Tolly princely line with his son Magnus on [[29 Octoberde outubro]], de [[1871]] ([[{{calendário juliano|17 October]],de Old Styleoutubro|1871}}), [[AlexanderAlexandre II da Rússia|Alexandre II]] allowed his greatgrandson through female lineage, Alexander von Weymarn, to assume the title of Prince Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn on [[12 Junede junho]], de [[1872]] ([[{{calendário juliano|31 May]],de Old Stylemaio|1872}}) [http://mdz1.bib-bvb.de/cocoon/baltlex/Blatt_bsb00000345,00442.html?prozent=]-->
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*{{Cite book |last=Josselson |first=Michael |authorlink= |coauthors=Josselson, Diana |title=The Commander: A Life of Barclay de Tolly |year=1980 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |id=ISBN 0-19-215854-6 }}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:NF|1761|1818|Barclay De Tolly, Michael Andreas}}
[[Categoria:Nobres da Rússia]]
[[Categoria:Militares da Rússia]]
[[Categoria:Membros do Conselho de Estado do Império Russo]]
[[Categoria:Militares das Guerras Napoleónicas]]
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