Diferenças entre edições de "Minimoog"

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#REDIRECT [[Moog (instrumento musical)]]
 
{{Info/Instrumento
|nome = Minimoog
|imagem = Minimoog.JPG
|legenda =
|som =
|classe =
|extensão =
|afinação =
|instrumentos =
|família =
|músicos =
|artigos =
}}
 
<!--
{{Infobox synthesizer
| image = Minimoog.JPG
| image_caption =
| synth_name = Minimoog
| synth_manufacturer = [[Moog Music]]
| synthesis_type= [[Analog synthesizer|Analog]] [[Subtractive synthesis|Subtractive]]
| polyphony = [[Monophonic (synthesizers)|Monophonic]]
| timbrality = [[Monotimbral]]
| oscillator = 3 [[Voltage-controlled oscillator|VCO]]s, [[white noise|white]]/[[pink noise]]
| filter = 24dB/oct, 4-pole [[lowpass filter]]<br> with cutoff, resonance, <br>[[ADS envelope]] generator, <br>keyboard tracking
| attenuator = ADS envelope generator
| lfo = Oscillator 3 can function as LFO
| keyboard = 44-note, low-note priority
| left_control = [[Portamento|Pitch bend]] and [[modulation|mod]] wheels
| ext_control = [[Control voltage|CV]]/gate
| fx = [[Frequency modulation]]<br> using oscillator 3/noise
| dates = 1970 - 1975, <br/>1977 - 1981<ref name="chronology" />
| price = [[United States dollar|US$]]1495
}}
-->
O '''Minimoog''' é um [[sintetizador]] monofônico analógico inventado por Bill Hemsath e [[Robert Moog]]. Foi lançado em [[1970]] pela R.A. Moog Inc. (Moog Music após [[1972]]), tendo sido produzido até [[1981]].<ref name="chronology">{{cite web |title=Chronology 1953-1993 |url=http://moogarchives.com/chrono.htm |work=Moog history |publisher=MoogArchives.com}}</ref> Em [[2002]], foi redesenhado pelo próprio Robert Moog, tendo sido relançado como [[Minimoog Voyager]].
 
O Minimoog foi projetado tendo em vista o uso de sintetizadores no [[rock]] e no [[música pop|pop]]. Os grandes [[Sintetizador modular|sintetizadores modulares]] eram caros, desajeitados e delicados, o que fazia deles instrumentos inadequados para apresentação ao vivo. Assim, o Minimoog foi pensado para incluir as partes mais importantes de um sintetizador modular em um móvel compacto, sem necessidade de cabos para conectar os elementos. O instrumento, no entanto, superou muito seu objetivo original e se tornou um extremamente popular por sua sonoridade característica.
 
O Minimoog permanece muito utilizado até hoje, mais de quaro décadas após sua invenção, por seu design intuitivo e pela riqueza de seus sons em todos os registros.
 
== Desenho ==
Basicamente, o painel de controle do Minimoog pode ser dividido em três secções:
* Os geradores de sinal (três [[Oscilador controlado por tensão|osciladores controlados por tensão]] e um gerador de [[ruído branco]] ou [[ruído rosa|rosa]]);
* O [[Filtro passa-faixa|filtro]];
* O [[amplificador]].
Todos os controles são feitos pela variação da tensão, nos sistema popularmente conhecido como "controle de voltagem".
<div style="margin-left:1em;">[[File:Minimoog panel.jpg|thumb|500px|left|Painel do Minimoog]]</div><br clear="left"/>
 
O Minimoog é monofônico (apenas uma nota pode ser tocada de cada vez) e seu projeto com três osciladores rendeu-lhe o seu famoso som "gordo". Quatro protótipos foram feitos até chegar ao desenho final que foi comercializado. O Minimoog modelo D adaptou parte dos circuitos de instrumentos modulares anteriores, mas muitos dos componentes foram inteiramente desenhados para ele. Para fazer um som, o músico deveria primeiro escolher um formato de onda a ser gerado pelo(s) oscilador(es) e/ou o tipo de ruído (branco ou rosa). Os osciladores permitem a escolha entre várias [[Forma de onda|formas de onda]]:
 
* [[Onda triangular]];
* [[Onda dente de serra]] invertida / rampa
* Mista Dente de serra/triangular (nos osciladores 1 e 2), onda dente de serra (no oscilador 3);
* [[Onda quadrada]];
* Dois tipos de [[onda pulse]].
 
Os sinais são roteados no [[Mixer|misturador]] para o filtro, onde é possível controlar a filtragem e adicionar ressonância.
 
O sinal filtrado então é enviado para o amplificador, onde passa por um gerador de [[Envelope (modulação)|envelope]] do tipo '''ADS''' ou '''ADSD''' (''Attack'', ''Decay'', ''Sustain'', ''Decay''), versão mais simples do mais utilizado [[ADSR]] (''Attack'', ''Decay'', ''Sustain'', ''Release''). No ADSD, o valor do [[Decaimento (som)|decaimento]] (''decay'') é replicado no [[Repouso (som)|repouso]] (''release''), de modo que há três botões para controlar qutaro parâmetros do som. Parte do diferencial desse intrumento sobre os antigos Moogs modulares é que o Minimoog não precisava de cabos externos de conexão entre os componentes (os chamados ''patch cables''). O sinal e os controles são transmitidos via cabeamento interno ("''hard-wired''"). Essa configuração, embora mais prática em termos de palco, limita o fluxo do sinal ao percurso descrito acima (oscilador(es) → filtro → amplificador). Contudo, há formas de tentar contornar essa limitação.
 
Podemos considerar que o Minimoog pode ter, ao todo, seis fontes sonoras, sendo que cinco delas passam pelo misturador com controles de intensidade independentes:
 
* 3 osciladores (ver acima);
* Um gerador de ruído;
* Uma entrada de linha externa.
 
Além disso, o filtro pode ser induzido a uma auto-oscilação, provendo assim uma sexta fonte sonora.
 
O filtro e o amplificador possuem cada um seu próprio gerador de envelope ADS.
 
<!--
There is also a switch above the pitch and modulation wheels to engage the final decay stage as well as a switch for engaging the glide circuit.
 
The VCF is of transistor ladder type, a design patented by Moog (US 3,475,623).<ref>[http://www.till.com/articles/moog/patents.html Moog patents]</ref><ref>[http://www.google.com/patents/about?
 
id=IYxjAAAAEBAJ&dq=3,475,623 US Patent 3475623] R. A. Moog, Electronic High-pass and Low-pass Filters Employing the Base-to-Emitter Resistance of Bipolar Transistors, issued October 1969
 
([http://www.ladyada.net/wiki/_media/x0x/moog_pat3475623.pdf PDF])</ref> Rumors that Moog had to go to court over the patent seem to be nothing more; 'differences' with ARP at one point were
 
settled amicably.<ref>Trevor Pinch, Frank Trocco, ''Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer''. Harvard University Press, 2004, p. 263. ISBN 0-674-01617-3</ref>
 
The output of the third oscillator and/or the noise generator can also be routed to the control voltage inputs of the filter and/or oscillators. The amount of pitch or filter modulation thus
 
realized is controlled by the modulation wheel, which is the right one of the two plastic disks located to the left of the keyboard. In this way, the third oscillator is frequently used as a
 
[[low-frequency oscillator]] to control pitch (oscillator modulation) and/or harmonic content (filter cutoff frequency modulation).
 
The Minimoog can be controlled using its built-in, 44-note keyboard, which is equipped with modulation and pitch-bend wheels or by feeding in an external one-volt-per-octave pitch-control voltage
 
and triggering the envelope generators with an inverted switch trigger (S-Trigger in Moog terminology).
 
External pitch control does not pass through the glide circuit, nor is it presented to the VCF tracking switches &mdash; the external inputs were not designed for external keyboard control. The
 
lowest note played on the keyboard determines the pitch, a condition that is referred to as low-note priority. The envelope generators do not re-trigger unless all notes are lifted before the next
 
note is played, an important characteristic which allows phrasing. The modulation and pitch-bending wheels were an innovation that many instrumentalists found to be extremely playable. The pitch-
 
bend wheel is on the left of the modulation wheel. It is normally kept in the centered position. It is not spring-loaded; the player must return it to the centered position to play in tune. There
 
is a delicate detent mechanism to help the player find the center position tactually. In sharp contrast to later synthesizers that also have pitch-bend wheels, there is no [[deadband]] near the
 
center of the wheel's travel; the wheel produces minute changes in pitch no matter how slightly it is moved in either direction. The wheel can therefore be used to introduce slight vibrato or
 
nuance, as well as accurate pitch changes. However, Moog later recommended adding a deadband mod and published this mod in their factory service notes. The detent mechanism can be adjusted
 
somewhat in its strength.
 
-->
 
<!--
== Uso ==
[[David Borden]], an early associate of Moog, has said that the Minimoog "took the synthesizer out of the studio and put it into the concert hall".<ref>Franklin Crawford (August 23, 2005).
 
[http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Aug05/Moog.obit.fac.html "Robert Moog, Ph.D. '64, inventor of the music synthesizer, dies of brain cancer"]. Cornell University News Service. Retrieved 4 May 2007.</ref> [[Jazz]] [[composer]] and [[bandleader]] [[Sun Ra]] used one of the first Minimoogs, a prototype lent him by Moog in 1969: "We loaned it to him and Sun Ra’s way of working is that when you loan him something you don’t expect to see it back."
[[Keith Emerson]] was the first musician to tour with a Minimoog, in 1970, during [[Emerson, Lake & Palmer]]'s ''[[Pictures at an Exhibition]]'' shows. Many essential pitch-bending techniques were first demonstrated by him, and many keyboardists learned how to pitch-bend by following his example. He immediately adopted it as one of his main instruments.
 
[[Keyboardist]] [[Rick Wakeman]] said of the Minimoog's invention: "For the first time you could go on [stage] and give the guitarist a run for his money...a guitarist would say, 'Oh shoot, he's got a Minimoog', so they're looking for eleven on their volume control - it's the only way they can compete." Wakeman said the instrument "absolutely changed the face of music."<ref>[[Hans
 
Fjellestad]] (2004). ''[[Moog (film)|Moog]]''</ref>
 
The early sound of [[post-disco]] was defined by the use of Minimoog. It became the signature sound<ref>{{cite journal |last=Norman |first=Riley |date= May 1986 |title=The Arts >> Music |
 
journal=The Crisis May |publisher=The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc. |volume=93 |page=10 |accessdate=24 April 2014}}</ref> of record producer and multi-instrumentalist [[Kashif (musician)|
 
Kashif]] who utilized it in works of artists ranging from [[Evelyn "Champagne" King]] to [[Whitney Houston]].
 
[[Kraftwerk]] co-founder [[Ralf Hutter]] used a Minimoog on the successful concept album ''[[Autobahn (album)|Autobahn]]'', and the Minimoog was used extensively on many subsequent albums, including ''[[The Man-Machine]]'' and ''[[Computer World]]''. The characteristic "electronic" yet elegant sound of the Minimoog became an important part of the Kraftwerk sound which in turn inspired an entire generation of electronic musicians.
 
Due to the design of its 24dB/octave filter, its three oscillators, and tuning instabilities which tend to keep the oscillators moving against one another, the Minimoog can produce an extremely rich and powerful bass sound. Despite the advent of low-cost [[digital synthesizers]] and [[Sampler (musical instrument)|samplers]], the Minimoog remains in high demand with producers and performers of electronic [[Pop music|pop]] and [[electronic music]].
 
The Minimoog was highly popular in the 1970s and 1980s, and has been used by many artists. For an incomplete list, see [[List of Moog synthesizer players]].
 
== Gravações famosas ==
{{unreferenced section|date=January 2012}}
* [[Phil Collins]] - The single "[[Sussudio]]" features a bass part played on a Minimoog.
* [[Heart (band)|Heart]] - The song "Magic Man" features notable Minimoog synthesizer usage
* [[ABBA]] - [[Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)|Gimme! Gimme! Gimme!]] bassline was played on Minimoog.
* [[Metronomy]]'s [[Joseph Mount]] plays the Minimoog on ''[[The English Riviera (album)|The English Riviera]]'' featured in the songs "The Look" and "The Bay".
* [[Rick Wakeman]]'s albums ''[[The Six Wives of Henry VIII (album)|The Six Wives of Henry VIII]]'', ''[[Journey to the Centre of the Earth (album)]]'', ''[[The Myths and Legends of King Arthur
 
and the Knights of the Round Table]]'', ''[[White Rock (film)|White Rock]]'' and ''[[No Earthly Connection]]'' feature great examples of many of the Minimoog's characteristic sounds.
* [[Yes (band)|Yes]] - many recordings by Yes are notable for their use of the Minimoog, such as the albums ''[[Close to the Edge (song)|Close To The Edge]]'', ''[[Tales from Topographic
 
Oceans]]'', ''[[Going For The One]]'', ''[[Tormato]]'' (featuring Rick Wakeman), ''[[Relayer]]'' (featuring [[Patrick Moraz]]), and ''[[Drama (Yes album)|Drama]]'' (featuring [[Geoff Downes]]).
* [[Electric Light Orchestra ]]- the Minimoog was a key instrument in the ''[[On the Third Day]] ''<nowiki/>album, and was added to the band's repertoire for much of their future work.
*[[Radiohead]]'s 2011 ''[[The King Of Limbs]]'' [[From the Basement]] sessions show [[Jonny Greenwood]] playing Minimoog on "[[Lotus Flower]]" and [[Thom Yorke]], on "Feral".
*[[Edward Van Halen]] played a Minimoog on [[Van Halen|Van Halen's]] cover of [[Martha Reeves|Martha]] [[Martha and the Vandellas|Martha and the Vandellas']] [[Motown]] classic ''[[Dancing in the
 
Street]]''. The song appears on their 1982 album, ''[[Diver Down]]''.
*[[Mother Mallard's Portable Masterpiece Company]] has re-issued its eponymous 1973 LP on Cuneiform Records containing music by David Borden and Steve Drews. They premiered the Minimoog prototype
 
in New York City at Trinity Church in June 1970. They performed "EASTER" which is a track on this CD.
* [[Premiata Forneria Marconi|PFM (Premiata Forneria Marconi)]] - "Impressioni di settembre", the 1971 debut single of this Italian [[progressive rock]] band used a Minimoog and was the first
 
Italian hit record to feature a synthesizer.
* [[Emerson, Lake & Palmer]] - [[Keith Emerson]] used a Minimoog on many Emerson, Lake & Palmer songs such as the basslines for "Karn Evil 9" 1st Impression.
* [[Paul Davis (musician)|Paul Davis]] owned many Minimoogs. He said in an interview it was the most versatile synth ever made. You can hear it on many of his '70s albums.
* [[Uriah Heep (band)|Uriah Heep]] prominently used the Minimoog since their album ''[[Magician's Birthday]]''
* The album ''[[The Zodiac : Cosmic Sounds]]'' is claimed to be the first album to feature the moog synthesizer.
* [[Jeff Beck]]'s album ''Wired'', on which [[Jan Hammer]] demonstrates pitch-bending technique using the wheel.
* [[Mahavishnu Orchestra]] (Mark 1) featured keyboard playing by [[Jan Hammer]] including prominent use of the Minimoog on the album [[Birds Of Fire]].
* [[Happy The Man]]'s self-titled debut album, on which [[Kit Watkins]] Minimoog performances are featured throughout.
* [[Kraftwerk]]'s 1974 album ''[[Autobahn (album)|Autobahn]]'', which was a revolutionary record in the development of electronic music.
* [[Klaus Doldinger|Passport]]'s 1975 album ''Cross-Collateral.'' The Minimoog is featured throughout this brilliant Jazz-Fusion recording.
*In 1976 [[Mother Mallard]] issued LP ''Like a Duck to Water''
*[[Caravan]]'s 1976 & 1977 albums 'Blind Dog at St Dunstans' & 'Better by Far'and [[Camel]]'s 1979 album 'I Can See Your House From Here' feature Minimoog model D performances by [[Jan
 
Schelhaas]]
* [[Larry Fast|Synergy]]'s ''Electronic Realizations for Rock Orchestra'', recorded with a Minimoog, an [[Oberheim]] expander module controlled by an early Oberheim DS-2 digital sequencer and a
 
[[Mellotron]]. Also, the second album, ''Sequencer'' has several Minimoog and Moog 15 modular synthesizer-based compositions.
* [[Mando Lichtenberger, Jr.]] of La Mafia used on Grammy Winning albums ''Un Million De Rosas'' and ''Vida''
* [[Devo]] used a Minimoog heavily on their first three albums and early singles, notably on the songs "[[Mongoloid (song)|Mongoloid]]" and "[[Jocko Homo]]".
* [[Gary Numan]]'s 1979 album ''[[Replicas (album)|Replicas]]'' (under the name [[Tubeway Army]]) is essentially built around the Minimoog. His follow-up releases ''[[The Pleasure Principle (Gary
 
Numan album)|The Pleasure Principle]]'' (1979) and ''[[Telekon]]'' (1980) also heavily feature the instrument.
* [[The Units]]'s 1979 four song E.P. entitled "Units"is in contention for the first [[Synthpunk]] recording. The Units founder and main songwriter, Scott Ryser, played all of The Units songs with
 
a Minimoog on the 1979 E.P. and all subsequent records by The Units.
* [[Michael Jackson]] used two Minimoogs combined to create the bass sound of the ''[[Thriller (Michael Jackson album)|Thriller]]'' album's title track released in 1982.
* [[Manfred Mann's Earth Band]] made the Minimoog an integral part of their sound, especially in their mid-1970s recordings.
* [[Geddy Lee]] of [[Rush (band)|Rush]] used a Minimoog on several Rush albums, from 1977's ''[[A Farewell to Kings]]'' to 1982's ''[[Signals (Rush album)|Signals]]''. On the live release
 
''[[Exit...Stage Left]]'', Lee can be heard manually "tweaking" the dials to produce unusual sounds in the space between songs "[[The Trees (Rush song)|The Trees]]" and "[[Xanadu (Rush song)|
 
Xanadu]]". Additionally, the solos on "[[Tom Sawyer (song)|Tom Sawyer]]" and "[[Subdivisions (song)|Subdivisions]]" were done on the Minimoog.
* [[Tony Hymas]] used the MiniMoog quite a lot on the Ph.D. album ''Is It Safe''.
* [[Funkadelic]] and [[Parliament (band)|Parliament]] used a Minimoog played by Bernie Worrell on various hits including "[[Flash Light (song)|Flash Light]]" (which created the song's distinctive
 
bassline).
*[[Hot Butter]] covered the song "[[Popcorn (instrumental)|Popcorn]]" on a vintage Minimoog at a surprise appearance at the L.L. Bean in Free Port, Maine.
*[[Shooter Jennings]] uses a Mini-Moog during live performances after releasing his Synth-filled album ''Black Ribbons''.
*[[Eduardo Parra]] of Los Jaivas used a Minimoog in the 1977's Album ''[[Cancion del Sur]]'', 1981's ''[[Alturas de Macchu Picchu]]'', 1982's ''[[Aconcagua]]'' and 1984's ''[[Obras de Violeta
 
Parra]]''.
*[[Richard Wright (musician)|Richard Wright]] of [[Pink Floyd]] used a Minimoog mainly during the song "[[Shine On You Crazy Diamond]]".
*[[Robert Lamm]] of Chicago you can hear the Moog on "I've Been Searching So Long" and most of their 70s work.
*[[Arjen Anthony Lucassen]]'s 2013 [[Ayreon]] album "[[The Theory of Everything (album)|The Theory of Everything]]" features two modular Moog solos, one by Keith Emerson in track 7 (Progressive
 
Waves) and the second by Rick Wakeman in track 16 (Surface Tension).
 
==Gallery==
;Various versions of minimoogs
<gallery heights="90">
File:R.A.Moog minimoog 2.jpg| Minimoog model D early model by R.A. Moog (1970)<ref name=SNhistory>{{cite web |title=MiniMoog SN history |url=http://minimoog.monsite-
 
orange.fr/page1/index.html |work=The Loads of the Mini |accessdate=2013-09-15 |quote=<small>''There were not only 2 versions of the Minimoog D but 6 ! 1/ For the very first R.A Moog model D (1970)
 
... 2/ The next ones “D” are still R.A Moog Model, always have discrete VCO (1970) but are cosmetically a little bit different from the first ones. ... 3/ Minimoog D Musonic.(1971) R.A Moog Cie
 
became Musonic Cie when R.A had to merge with Musonic cie. ... 4/ Minimoog D Moog Music (1972). These ones are the “famous” old osc. board but these osc board are not at all the same as the RA &
 
Musonic. ... 5/ Moog perfected the Minimoog by issuing a revised osc. circuit board which gave far improved stability and added a new “buffer board”, which gave better stability. All Mini with
 
serial number greater than 10175 have the newer osc. board.''</small>}}<br/>Early R.A. Moog Model D slightly resembles Model C without modulation wheel, and later R.A. Moog Model D has factory
 
installed white or black name plate.</ref>
File:Eboardmuseum 3b.jpg| Minimoog model D <br/>by R.A. Moog (1970)<ref name=SNhistory/>
File:Minimoog model D (1975) (by Alain, 6919141447).jpg|Minimoog model D <br/>by Moog Music (1975)
File:Minimoog (Deutsches Museum).jpg| Reproduced Minimoog by Norlin/Moog Music (1978)
File:Moog Voyager Old School (angled).jpg| Voyager Old School by new Moog Music (2008)
</gallery>
 
-->
==Ver também==
* [[Sintetizador]]
* [[Moog (instrumento musical)]]
 
{{referências}}
 
==Ligações externas==
* [http://www.synthmuseum.com/moog/moomini01.html Minimoog at Synthmuseum.com]
* [http://www.vintagesynth.com/moog/moog.shtml Minimoog em Vintage Synth Explorer]
* [http://www.retrosound.de/minimoog.html Minimoog Resource]
* [http://www.audities.org/audities/collection/moog_modela_1.html Minimoog prototypes em Audities.org]
* [http://www.polynominal.com/site/studio/gear/synth/moog_minimoog/index.html Minimoog D info, pictures and audio clips]
 
[[Categoria: Sintetizadores]]
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