Diferenças entre edições de "Arnold Orville Beckman"

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{{em tradução|:en:Arnold Orville Beckman}}
 
{{Info/Cientista
|nome =Arnold Orville Beckman
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'''Arnold Orville Beckman''' ([[Cullom]], {{dtlink|lang=br|10|4|1900}} — [[La Jolla]], {{dtlink|lang=br|18|5|2004}}) foi um [[Química|químico]] [[Estados Unidos|estadunidense]].
 
Em 1934 inventou o [[pHmetro]], que consistia em um instrumento que realizava a medição de acidez ou basicidade de uma dada solução e que originalmente era chamado de “acidimeter”. Nessa época, o “acidimeter” pesava cerca de 7 kg. O primeiro pHmetro tinha um medidor de falha de concepção, em que as leituras de <em>p</em>H eram influenciadas pela profundidade de imersão dos eletrodos. Para solucionar este problema, Beckman resolveu selar de vidro a ampola do eletrodo.
Baseado em seu invento, fundou a Beckman Instruments Inc. em 1935. Em 1955 realizou uma divisão dessa empresa, criando o Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, que se estabeleceu perto de Mountain View, na California. Esse laboratório possibilitou uma série de pesquisas e trabalhos com semicondutores de silício, dando origem ao chamado “Vale do Silício”.
 
=={{Ligações externas}}==
 
 
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==Early life==
Beckman was born in [[Cullom, Illinois]], the son of a blacksmith. He was curious about the world from an early age. When he was nine, Beckman found an old chemistry textbook and began trying out the experiments. His father encouraged his scientific interests by letting him convert a toolshed into a laboratory.
 
[[World War I]] was still raging when Beckman turned 18, and so in August 1918, he enlisted in the [[United States Marines]]. After his basic training, he was sent to the [[Brooklyn]] Navy Yard, to await transit to the war in [[Europe]]. Fortunately for him, the war ended in November, 1918, and he did not have to fight in [[France]]. By another stroke of luck, he missed being sent to [[Russia]] to fight the [[Bolsheviks]] by one space in line. Instead, he spent that [[Thanksgiving]] at the local [[YMCA]], where his table was served by 17-year-old Mabel Meinzer, who became his wife.
 
==Education==
Beckman attended the [[University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|University of Illinois]], where he earned his [[bachelor's]] degree in chemical engineering in 1922 and his [[master's degree]] in physical chemistry in 1923. While attending the University of Illinois, he was initiated into the [[Gamma Alpha]] Graduate Scientific Fraternity in December 1922. He joined the [[Delta Upsilon]] Fraternity.
 
Beckman decided to go to Caltech for his doctorate. He stayed there for a year, but decided to return to New York and his fianceé, Mabel, who was working as a secretary for the [[AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company|Equitable Life Assurance Society]]. He found a job with [[Western Electric]]'s engineering department, the precursor to the [[Bell Telephone Laboratories]].
 
At Western Electric, Beckman developed [[quality control]] programs for the manufacture of [[vacuum tube]]s and learned about circuit design. It was here that Beckman discovered his interest in [[electronics]].
 
Beckman married Mabel on 10 June 1925. The following year, the couple moved back to California and Beckman resumed his studies at Caltech. He became interested in [[ultraviolet photolysis]] and worked with his doctoral advisor, [[Roscoe G. Dickinson]], on an instrument to find the energy of ultraviolet light. It worked by shining the ultraviolet light onto a [[thermocouple]], converting the incident heat into electricity, which drove a [[galvanometer]]. After receiving his doctorate in 1928, Beckman was asked to stay on at Caltech as an instructor and then as a professor.
 
During his time at CalTech, he worked at times with [[Linus Pauling]], who had the same doctoral advisor, [[Roscoe G. Dickinson]]. After working with Pauling, Beckman formed his opinion that Pauling was an immoral man and an intellectual thief. He claimed Pauling appropriated the research of others for himself without attribution, including Beckman's own theories and research, during Pauling's development of quantum chemistry theories. Though livid with Pauling for this alleged con, Beckman considered any effort on his part, to contest Pauling, to be a waste of his time, describing it only to his family and friends. Beckman developed a disgust for Pauling that would last throughout the rest of his life, believing that Pauling had successfully committed academic fraud of the highest order, which was rewarded by Paulings's Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
 
==pH Meter==
Beckman's interest in electronics made him very popular within the chemistry department, as he was very skilled in building measuring instruments. He also shared his expertise with glass-blowing by teaching classes in the machine shop. With the blessing of [[Robert Millikan]], Caltech's president, Beckman began accepting outside consulting work.
 
One of his clients wanted an ink that would not clog. Beckman's solution was to make it with [[butyric acid]], a very noxious substance. Because of this ingredient, no manufacturer wanted to manufacture it, so Beckman decided to make it himself. He hired two Caltech students to help him, and started the National Inking Appliance Company. At first, he tried marketing it as a way to re-ink [[typewriter ribbon]]s, but this approach was not successful.
 
Another client, [[Sunkist Growers, Incorporated|Sunkist]], was having problems with its own manufacturing process. The lemons that were not salable as produce were made into [[pectin]] or citric acid, with [[sulfur dioxide]] used as a preservative. Sunkist needed to know what the acidity of the product was at any given time, and the methods then in use, such as [[litmus paper]], were not working well.
 
Beckman invented the [[pH meter]] in 1935. Originally called the acidimeter, the pH meter is an important device for measuring the pH of a solution.
 
==Transistor==
In 1955, Beckman established the [[Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory]] to fund [[William Shockley]]'s research into [[semiconductor]] technology. Because Shockley's aging mother lived in [[Palo Alto, California|Palo Alto]], Shockley established the laboratory in nearby [[Mountain View, Santa Clara County, California|Mountain View, California]]. Thus, [[Silicon Valley]] was born.
 
During his later years, Beckman lived in [[Corona del Mar]] near [[Newport Beach]], [[California]]. He was an active [[philanthropy|philanthropist]] through the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation. To date, the Foundation has given more than 400 million dollars to various charities and organizations. Donations chiefly went to scientists and scientific causes as well as his alma maters. He is the namesake of [[The Beckman Institute]] and the Beckman Quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is also the namesake of the Beckman Institute, Beckman Auditorium, Beckman Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, and Beckman Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis at the California Institute of Technology.
 
Beckman and his family also sponsored the creation of the [[Arnold O. Beckman High School]] in [[Irvine, California]].
 
Dr. Beckman's history and the unique Heritage Center is located at the Beckman Coulter headquarters in [[Fullerton, California]].
 
Mr. Beckman was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1985.<ref>{{cite web
| title = The U.S. Business Hall of Fame
| url = http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1985/04/15/65784/index.htm
| work = Fortune Magazine
}}</ref> In 1987, he was inducted into the [[National Inventors Hall of Fame]].<ref>[http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/9.html National Inventors Hall of Fame]</ref>
 
==Additional information==
* [[Fairchild Semiconductor]] (a more detailed history of Beckman's role in the founding of Silicon Valley)
*[[Arnold O. Beckman High School]] was named after him
 
==Notes==
{{Reflist}}
*{{cite journal | doi = 10.1373/clinchem.2004.037861 | title = Arnold O. Beckman, PhD (1900-2004) | year = 2004 | last1 = Gochman | first1 = N. | journal = Clinical Chemistry | volume = 50 | pages = 1486}}
*{{cite journal | doi = 10.1021/ac041608j | title = People: Arnold Orville Beckman (1900-2004) | year = 2004 | last1 = Gallwas | first1 = Jerry | journal = Analytical Chemistry | volume = 76 | pages = 264 A}}
*{{cite journal | doi = 10.1063/1.1881907 | first1 = Theodore L. | last1 = Brown | first2 = Harry B. | last2= Gray | year = 2005 | journal = Physics Today | volume = 58 | pages = 63 | title = Arnold Orville Beckman}}
*{{cite book | isbn = 9780941901239 | author = Arnold Thackray and Minor Myers, Jr. ; foreword by James D. Watson. | year = 2000 | publisher = Chemical Heritage Foundation | location = Philadelphia, Pa. | title = Arnold O. Beckman : one hundred years of excellence}}
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=={{Ligações externas}}==
*[http://www.beckman.com/ His company's website]
*[http://www.beckman-foundation.com His philanthropic foundation's website]
{{Medalha Nacional de Tecnologia e Inovação}}
{{Medalha Nacional de Ciências|physical}}
 
{{Controle de autoridade}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Beckman, Arnold Orville}}
[[Categoria:Empresários dos Estados Unidos]]
[[Categoria:Químicos dos Estados Unidos]]
[[Categoria:Ex-alunosAlunos do Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia]]
[[Categoria:Ex-alunosAlunos da Universidade de Illinois em Urbana-Champaign]]
[[Categoria:Centenários dos Estados Unidos]]