Evry Schatzman: diferenças entre revisões

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'''Évry Léon Schatzman''' ([[Neuilly-sur-Seine]], {{dtlink|lang=br|16|9|1920}} — {{dtlink|lang=br|25|4|2010}}<ref>http://www.union-rationaliste.org/index.php/20100427351/Informations/Deces-d-Evry-Schatzman.html</ref>) foi um [[Astrofísica|astrofísico]] [[França|francês]].<ref>p. 104, ''L'Outil Théorie'', Evry Schatzman and Isabelle Souriau, Paris: Eshel, 1992. ISBN 2-906704-44-X.</ref><ref name="iac">[http://www.iac.es/gabinete/iacnoticias/2-99/evry.htm EVRY SCHATZMAN y la historia de la evolución estelar], Begoña López Betancor, ''I@C Noticias'', Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 2-1999. Accessed on line 20 September 2007.</ref>
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His father, Benjamin Schatzman, was a [[dentist]] born in [[Tulcea]], Romania and emigrated at a young age with his family in Palestine.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.agoravox.fr/actualites/technologies/article/evry-schatzman-le-savant-des-77462|author=Sylvain Rakotoarison |title=Évry Schatzman, le savant des astres|publisher=''AgoraVox''|date=25 June 2010|accessdate=13 August 2010|language=French}}</ref> Schatzman began his studies at the [[École Normale Supérieure]] in November 1939. After the [[World War II|German invasion of France]], Schatzman, who was [[Jewish]], fled [[occupied France]], arriving in [[Lyon]] in January 1942. He worked there for a year and then moved to [[Haute-Provence Observatory]]. He began work at the [[Centre national de la recherche scientifique]] (CNRS) in the fall of 1945 and received his [[doctorate]] in March 1946. He then worked at [[Copenhagen Observatory]] and [[Princeton University]] before beginning to teach at the [[University of Paris]] in 1949, where he remained for 27 years. During this period Schatzman also taught at the [[Université Libre de Bruxelles]] ({{lang-en|Free University of Brussels}}). Schatzman became an associate professor at the University of Paris in 1954. In 1976 he moved to [[Nice Observatory]], where he eventually became a full-time researcher. Schatzman retired in the fall of 1989.<ref name="desire">[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ARA&A..34....1S The Desire To Understand the World], Evry Schatzman, ''Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics'' '''34''' (1996), pp. 1&ndash;34. DOI [http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.astro.34.1.1 10.1146/annurev.astro.34.1.1].</ref>
Schatzman worked on [[white dwarf]]s during the 1940s. He realized that the atmospheres of white dwarfs should be gravitationally stratified, with [[hydrogen]] on top and heavier elements below,<ref>[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1945AnAp....8..143S Théorie du débit d'énergie des naines blanches], Evry Schatzman, ''Annales d'Astrophysique'' '''8''' (January 1945), pp. 143&ndash;209.</ref><ref name="physrev">[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990RPPh...53..837K Physics of white dwarf stars], D. Koester and G. Chanmugam, ''Reports on Progress in Physics'' '''53''' (1990), pp. 837&ndash;915.</ref><sup>, §5&ndash;6</sup> and explained [[pressure ionization]] in white dwarf atmospheres.<ref name="desire" /> He was one of the proponents of the wave heating theory of the solar [[corona]].<ref>[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981ARA&A..19....7K On the theory of coronal heating mechanisms], Max Kuperus, James A. Ionson, and Daniel S. Spicer, ''Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics'' '''19''' (1981), pp. 7&ndash;40.</ref><ref>[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1949AnAp...12..203S The heating of the solar corona and chromosphere], Evry Schatzman, ''Annales d'Astrophysique'' '''12''' (1949), pp. 203&ndash;218.</ref> Schatzman proposed the mechanism of [[magnetic braking]], by which [[Stellar wind|outflows]] slow down the stellar rotation. <ref>[[Leon Mestel|Mestel, L.]], 1968, ''MNRAS'', '''138''', 359−391</ref>
Schatzman wrote the astrophysics textbook ''Astrophysique Générale'' and contributed greatly to the popularity of astrophysics in France. He received the [[Prix Jules Janssen]] of the French Astronomical Society in 1973, the Holweck award in 1985, and the Gold Medal of the CNRS in 1983. He became a member of the [[French Academy of Sciences]] in 1985.<ref name="iac" /><ref name="desire" />
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