Diferenças entre edições de "Horário Padrão da Índia"

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'''''Indian Standard Time''''' (IST) é o nome dado a [[hora]] oficial da [[Índia]].
 
O ''Indian Standard Time'' é calculado no observatório de [[Allahabad]], que está situado a 82.5°E do [[Meridiano de Greenwich]], sendo adotada uma diferença de 5 horas e 30 minutos com relação ao [[Tempo Universal Coordenado|horário oficial de Greenwich]] (''[[Greenwich Mean Time]]'', GMT).
 
[[Image:IST-CIA-TZ.png|thumb|IST em relação com as nações que fazem fronteira]]
O '''Horário Padrão da Índia''' ('''IST''') é o [[fuso horário|horário]] observado em toda [[Índia]] e [[Sri Lanka]], com um [[time offset]] de [[UTC+5:30]]. A Índia não observa [[horário de verão]] (DST) ou outros ajustes sazonais, [[Guerra sino-indiana|962]] e a [[Guerra Indo-Paquistanesa de 1965]] e [[Guerra Indo-Paquistanesa de 1971|1971]].<ref name="timez">{{citecitar web | url =http://wwp.india-time.com/indian-time-zones.htm | title =India Time Zones | accessdate =2006-11-25|work=[http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)]}}</ref> O tempo militar e aeronáutica, IST é designado '''E*''' ("Echo-Star").<ref>{{citecitar web | url = http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/info/timezone.htm
| title = Military and Civilian Time Designations | accessdate =2006-12-02| work=[http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)]}}</ref>
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Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.5° E [[longitude]], from a clock tower in [[Mirzapur]] ({{Coord|25.15|N|82.58|E|}}) (near [[Allahabad]] in the state of [[Uttar Pradesh]]) which is nearly on the corresponding longitude reference line.<ref name="two-timing">{{citecitar web|url=http://www.hindustantimes.in/StoryPage/Print.aspx?Id=7ae0f1f1-23fd-4e46-98f2-3e0933e87f9f |title=Two-timing India|date=2007-09-04|work=[[Hindustan Times]]|accessdate=2008-08-29}}</ref>
 
In the [[tz database]] it is represented by [[Asia/Kolkata]].
{{Main|Time in India}}
 
After [[Indian independence movement|independence in 1947]], the [[Government of India|Indian government]] established IST as the official time for the whole country, although Kolkata and Mumbai retained their own local time for a few more years.<ref name="Princely states">{{citecitar web|url=http://www.irfca.org/faq/faq-misc.html |title=Odds and Ends |accessdate=2006-11-25 |work=[http://www.irfca.org Indian Railways Fan Club]}}</ref> The Central observatory was moved from Chennai to a location near [[Mirzapur]], so that it would be as close to UTC +5:30 as possible.
 
During the Sino–Indian War of 1962 and the Indo–Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971, daylight saving was briefly used to reduce civilian energy consumption.
 
==Criticism and proposals==
The country's east–west distance of more than 2,000 km (1,200 [[Mile#Statute mile|mi]]) covers over 28 degrees of longitude, resulting in the sun rising and setting almost two hours earlier on India's eastern border than in the [[Rann of Kutch]] in the far west. Inhabitants of the [[North-East India|north–eastern states]] have to advance their clocks with the early sunrise and avoid the extra consumption of energy after daylight hours.<ref name="bbc">{{citecitar web | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1501252.stm |title=India investigates different time zones|accessdate=2006-11-25 |last=Sen |first=Ayanjit |date=2001-08-21 |work=[http://news.bbc.co.uk BBC News]}}</ref>
 
In the late 1980s, a team of researchers proposed separating the country into two or three time zones to conserve energy. The binary system that they suggested involved a return to British–era time zones; the recommendations were not adopted.<ref name="bbc"></ref><ref name="thehindu2002">{{citecitar web|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/mp/2002/01/07/stories/2002010700130300.htm |title=A matter of time |accessdate=2006-11-25 |last=S. Muthiah |date=2002-01-07 |work=[http://www.thehindubusinessline.com The Hindu Business Line] |publisher=[[The Hindu]] Group}}</ref>
 
In 2001, the government established a four–member committee under the [[Department of Science & Technology (India)|Ministry of Science and Technology]] to examine the need for multiple time zones and daylight saving.<ref name="bbc"></ref> The findings of the committee, which were presented to [[Parliament of India|Parliament]] in 2004 by the Minister for Science and Technology, [[Kapil Sibal]], did not recommend changes to the unified system, stating that "the prime meridian was chosen with reference to a central station, and that the expanse of the Indian State was not large."<ref>{{citecitar web|url=http://dst.gov.in/admin_finance/un-sq1007.htm |title=Standard Time for Different Regions |accessdate=2006-11-25 |date=2004-07-22 |work=Department of Science and Technology}}</ref>
 
Though the government has consistently refused to split the country into multiple time zones, provisions in labour laws such as the ''Plantations Labour Act, 1951'' do allow the Central and State governments to define and set the local time for a particular industrial area.<ref>{{citecitar web|url=http://nrcw.nic.in/shared/sublinkimages/19.htm |title=A matter of time |accessdate=2006-11-25 |work=National Resource Centre for Women}}</ref> In Assam, tea gardens follow a separate time zone known as the Tea Garden Time or Bagantime that is one hour ahead of IST.<ref name="HindustanTimes2008">{{citecitar web|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=971215e0-8512-4ce2-805d-02592f3aab16 |title= Change clock to bagantime |accessdate=2008-09-22 |last=Rahul Karmakar |date=2008-04-13 |work=[http://www.hindustantimes.com Hindustan Times] |publisher=[[HT Media]] Group}}</ref>
 
==Time signals==
Official time signals are generated by the [[Time and Frequency Standards Laboratory]] at the National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, for both commercial and official use. The signals are based on [[atomic clock]]s and are synchronised with the worldwide system of clocks that support the [[Coordinated Universal Time]].
 
Features of the Time and Frequency Standards Laboratory include:<ref>{{citecitar web|url=http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/asia/india/time/indian-time-today.htm |title=Indian Time Today (IST) |accessdate=2006-11-25 |work=[http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/ Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)]}}</ref>
*Four [[caesium]] and [[rubidium]] atomic clocks;
*[[High frequency]] broadcast service operating at 10 MHz under call sign ''ATA'' to synchronise the user clock within a millisecond;
*Time and frequency calibrations made with the help of [[picosecond|pico–]] and [[nanosecond]]s time interval [[frequency counter]]s and [[phase (waves)|phase]] recorders.
 
IST is taken as the standard time as it passes through almost the centre of India. To communicate the exact time to the people, the exact time is broadcast over the state–owned [[All India Radio]] and [[Doordarshan]] television network. Telephone companies have dedicated phone numbers connected to [[mirror (computing)|mirror]] [[timeserver]]s that also relay the precise time. Another increasingly popular means of obtaining the time is through [[Global Positioning System]] (GPS) receivers.<ref>{{citecitar web|url=http://pib.nic.in/release/rel_print_page.asp?relid=19703 |title=Satellites for Navigation |accessdate=2006-11-25 |work=[http://pib.nic.in Press Information Bureau, Government of India]}}</ref>
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=={{Ver também}}==
*[[Equação do tempo]]
*[[Tempo Atômico Internacional]]
{{Reflist|2}}
 
=={{Ligações externas}}==
*[http://www.nplindia.ernet.in/time.php National Physical Laboratory]
*[http://www.mayin.org/ajayshah/A/ShahAggarwal2007_ist.pdf ''Evaluating two timezones and Daylight Saving Time for India''], by Viral Shah & Vikram Aggarwal.