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| On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light
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| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''17''', 132–148, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1905_17_132-148.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E13; Chap. 7, ref. E7; Chap. 19, ref. E5; Chap. 23, ref. E2.</ref> Proposal of the [[photon]] as a quantum of energy, supported by many independent arguments.
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| <span id="schilpp_8"></span>Schilpp 8; ''CP'' '''2''', 16 || 1905 || [[Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen]]
| On the Theory of Light Production and Light Absorption
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| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''20''', 199–206, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1906_20_199-206.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 19, ref. E8.</ref> Einstein reconciles his and Planck's ''independent'' derivations of the blackbody formula ''E=hν''. Planck's derivation of this formula ascribed it to a restriction on the energy changes possible when radiation is produced or absorbed by matter, which implied no restriction on the energies of either matter or radiation. Einstein's 1905 derivation ascribed it to a restriction on the energy of radiation alone, but in this paper, he proposes the modern idea that the energies of both matter and radiation are quantized, which led to his work on quantum specific heats, such as [[#schilpp_16|reference #16]].
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| <span id="schilpp_14"></span>Schilpp 14; ''CP'' '''2''', 35 || 1906 || Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Schwerpunktsbewegung und die Trägheit der Energie
| On the Present Status of the Radiation Problem
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| ''Physikalische Zeitschrift'', '''10''', 185–193 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, refs. E24 and E47; Chap. 10, ref. E2; Chap. 21, ref. E2.</ref> Review article on [[electromagnetic radiation]], and an important forerunner of publication [[#schilpp_30|#30]].
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| <span id="schilpp_29b"></span>Schilpp 29b; ''CP'' '''2''', 57 || 1909 || No title
| ''Physikalische Zeitschrift'', '''10''', 323–324 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 29, ref. R1.</ref> Walther Ritz's joint communique with Einstein (co-author) on their differing viewpoints of the advanced and retarded solutions of Maxwell's equations. Einstein argues that the physical restriction to retarded solutions is not a law, but probabilistic; Ritz states that the same restriction is the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
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| <span id="schilpp_30"></span>Schilpp 30; ''CP'' '''2''', 60 || 1909 || Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung
| On the Development of Our Views Concerning the Nature and Constitution of Radiation
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| ''Physikalische Zeitschrift'', '''10''', 817–825 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E25; Chap. 7, ref. E27; Chap. 10, ref. E3; Chap. 12, ref. E25; Chap. 19, ref. E11; Chap. 21, ref. E3; Chap. 26, ref. E15.</ref> Pivotal address before the 81st assembly of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher, held in Salzburg, where Einstein showed that [[photon]]s must carry momentum and should be treated as particles. Notes that [[electromagnetic radiation]] must have a [[wave–particle duality|dual nature]], at once both wave-like and particulate. Also published in the journal ''Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen'', '''11''', pp.&nbsp;482–500. [[:s:The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation|An English translation]] is available at the English Wikisource.
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| <span id="schilpp_31"></span>Schilpp 31; ''CP'' '''3''', 7 || 1910 || Über einen Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung in der Strahlungstheorie
| On a Theorem of the Probability Calculus and Its Application in the Theory of Radiation
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| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''33''', 1096–1104, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1910_33_1096-1104.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E26; Chap. 29, ref. E10.</ref> Co-authored with L. Hopf. See also publication [[#schilpp_79|#79]].
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| <span id="schilpp_32"></span>Schilpp 32; ''CP'' '''3''', 8 || 1910 || Statistische Untersuchung der Bewegung eines Resonators in einem Strahlungsfeld
| Statistical Investigation of a Resonator's Motion in a Radiation Field
|}
| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''33''', 1105–1115, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1910_33_1105-1115.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E27; Chap. 21, ref. E12; Chap. 29, ref. E11.</ref> Co-authored with L. Hopf.
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| <span id="schilpp_33"></span>Schilpp 33; ''CP'' '''3''', 9 || 1910 || Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes
| On the Theory of Light Quanta and the Question of the Localization of Electromagnetic Energy
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| ''Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4)'', ''' 29''', 525–528 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.
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| <span id="schilpp_36"></span>Schilpp 36; ''CP'' '''3''', 6 || 1910 || Forces pondéromotrices qui agissent sur les conducteurs ferromagnétiques disposés dans un champs magnétique et parcourus par un courant
| Response to a Comment by J. Stark: 'On an Application of Planck's Fundamental Law...
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| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''38''', 888, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1912_38_888.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 19, ref. E10.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_49"></span>Schilpp 49; ''CP'' '''4''', 8 || 1912 || Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham
| Response to a Paper by M. von Laue: A Theorem in Probability Calculus and Its Application to Radiation Theory
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| ''[[Annalen der Physik]] (ser. 4)'', '''47''', 879–885, [http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1915_47_879-885.pdf link] || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E28; Chap. 14, ref. E30.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_80"></span>Schilpp 80; ''CP'' '''6''', 23 || 1915 || Experimenteller Nachweis des Ampèreschen Molekularströme
| Emission and Absorption of Radiation in Quantum Theory
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| ''Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft'', '''18''', 318–323 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E35; Chap. 15, ref. E21; Chap. 21, ref. E9.</ref> Seminal paper in which Einstein showed that [[Max Planck|Planck's]] quantum hypothesis ''E=hν'' could be derived from a kinetic rate equation. This paper introduced the idea of [[stimulated emission]] (which led to the [[laser]] and [[maser]]), and Einstein's ''A'' and ''B'' coefficients provided a guide for the development of [[quantum electrodynamics]], the most accurately tested theory of physics at present. In this work, Einstein begins to realize that [[quantum mechanics]] seems to involve probabilities and a breakdown of [[causality]].<ref>Pais, pp. 410–412.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_93"></span>Schilpp 93; ''CP'' '''6''', 38 || 1916 || Quantentheorie der Strahlung
| On the Quantum Theory of Radiation
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| ''Mitteilungen der Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Zürich'', '''16''', 47–62 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E36; Chap. 15, ref. E21; Chap. 21, ref. E10.</ref> Following his 1909 address (reference [[#schilpp_30|#30]]), Einstein shows that photons must carry [[momentum]] if [[Planck's law]] is to hold. This was confirmed in 1923 by [[Compton scattering]], for which the 1927 [[Nobel Prize in Physics]] was awarded and which led to the general acceptance to the photon concept.
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| <span id="schilpp_94"></span>Schilpp 94; ''CP'' '''6''', 36 || 1916 || Review of H. A. Lorentz: Théories statistiques en thermodynamique
| On the Quantum Theory of Radiation
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| ''Physikalische Zeitschrift'', '''18''', 121–128 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E37; Chap. 21, ref. E11; Chap. 26, ref. E16.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_107"></span>Schilpp 107; ''CP'' '''6''', 43 || 1917 || Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
| On an Experiment Concerning the Elementary Process of Light Emission
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| ''Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften'', '''1921 (pt. 2)''', 882–883 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 17, ref. E6; Chap. 21, ref. E19.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_151"></span>Schilpp 151 || 1921 || Report of a lecture at King's College on the development and present position of relativity, with quotations || ''Nation and Athenaeum'', '''29''', 431–432 || [[Special relativity|Special]] and [[general relativity]]. The German text is reproduced in ''Mein Weltbild'' (pp.&nbsp;215–220); a full translation is found in ''The world as I see it''. It was also reported in ''Nature ('''107''', p.&nbsp;504) and also in the Times (London) on June 14, p.&nbsp;8.
| Quantum Theory of the Equilibrium of Radiation<sup>§</sup>
|}
| ''Zeitschrift für Physik'', '''19''', 301–306 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 17, ref. E10; Chap. 21, ref. E23; Chap. 29, ref. E24.</ref> Co-authored with [[Paul Ehrenfest]].
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| <span id="schilpp_181"></span>Schilpp 181 || 1924 || Antwort auf eine Bemerkung von W. Anderson
| The Compton Experiment<sup>§</sup>
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| ''Berliner Tageblatt'', 1. Beiblatt || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 21, ref. E24.</ref> Experiment showing that photons could carry momentum; for many physicists, this experiment was conclusive proof that photons were particles.
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| <span id="schilpp_184"></span>Schilpp 184 || 1924 || Zum hundertjährigen Gedenktag von Lord Kelvins Geburt
| Thermal Equilibrium in the Radiation Field in the Presence of Matter
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| ''Zeitschrift für Physik'', '''27''', 392–392 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 4, ref. E38.</ref>
|-
| <span id="schilpp_193"></span>Schilpp 193 || 1925 || Elektron und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie
| Observation on P. Jordan's Work: Theory of Quantum Radiation<sup>§</sup>
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| ''Zeitschrift für Physik'', '''31''', 784–785 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 23, ref. E9.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_199"></span>Schilpp 199 || 1926 || W. H. Julius, 1860–1925 ||''Astrophysical Journal'', '''63''', 196–198 || [[História da física]].<ref>Pais, Chap. 12, ref. E2; Chap. 16, ref. E63.</ref>
| Suggestion for an Experiment Concerning the Nature of the Elementary Process of Emitting Light<sup>§</sup>
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| ''Naturwissenschaften'', '''14''', 300–301 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 17, ref. E13.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_202"></span>Schilpp 202 || 1926 || Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes
| Interference Properties of Light Emitted by Canal Rays<sup>§</sup>
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| ''Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse'', '''1926''', 334–340 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 17, ref. E14.</ref> Supposedly verified experimentally by [[Emil Rupp|Rupp]] in the paper following it in the journal (pp.&nbsp;341–351); later, it came out that Rupp was a fraud.
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| <span id="schilpp_203"></span>Schilpp 203 || 1926 || Geometría no euclídea y física
| Theoretical and Experimental [Aspects] to the Question of the Generation of Light<sup>§</sup>
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| ''Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie'', '''40''', 546 || [[PhotonFotão|Fótons]]s.<ref>Pais, Chap. 25, ref. E12.</ref>
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| <span id="schilpp_216"></span>Schilpp 216 || 1928 || H. A. Lorentz ||''Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Blätter'', '''22''', 24–25 || [[História da física]].<ref>Pais, Chap. 8, ref. E11.</ref> Abstract of an address given at a memorial service at Leiden University. Reprinted in ''Mein Weltbild'' (''The world as I see it''), p.&nbsp;25.
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