Governo local na Austrália: diferenças entre revisões

Desde 2009 "em tradução"
m (traduzindo nome/parâmetro nas citações, outros ajustes usando script)
(Desde 2009 "em tradução")
{{Em tradução}}
{{Política da Austrália}}
[[Austrália]] tem três níveis principais do governo: Governo Federal, o Estado (ou território) Governo e [[governo local]]. Este artigo trata de Governo Local. Veja [[Estados e territórios da Austrália]] para obter informações do governo estadual.
|url=http://www.dotars.gov.au/local/publications/reports/2003_2004/index.aspx
|isbn=1443-3389 }}</ref>
 
== Tipos de governo local ==
Governos locais são subdivisões dos [[Estados e territórios da Austrália|estados]] e o [[Território do Norte]]. A capital, Canberra, não tem governo local, todas as funções que são executadas pelo governo territorial do [[Território da Capital da Austrália]].
 
Embora todos eles são essencialmente idênticos em função, Governos locais australianos têm uma variedade de títulos. [[Áreas de governo local da Austrália|Área de governo local]] (LGAs) é a unidade oficial do governo local, mas em geral eles são referidos como "conselhos" referindo-se tanto a área geográfica de um governo local, e assim como a diretoria eleita, que governa assuntos locais.<!--
Unlike some other countries such as the [[United States]] and [[United Kingdom]], there is only one tier of local government in Australia. In contrast to the UK, where a Shire is a County, in Australia a 'shire' is a rural council, but a 'county' is a non-functional administrative unit used solely for the purposes of registration of land titles (see [[Cadastral divisions of Australia]]) and few people are even aware the counties exist.
 
In rural areas the councils are called '''Shires''', and '''Cities''' in urban and suburban areas. '''Municipalities''' are typically older city areas in New South Wales, but resemble standard shires in rural Tasmania, and several rural towns in South Australia are also called municipalities. Other rural areas in South Australia are known as '''District Councils'''. Queensland and Western Australia both use the moniker '''Town''' for smaller rural towns. New South Wales has introduced a new term, '''Regional Council''', for LGAs formed by the amalgamation of smaller shires and rural cities. Many local governments now choose not to use a classifier, especially after such an amalgamation and refer to themselves simply as "councils", e.g. [[Port Macquarie-Hastings Council]] or [[Pittwater Council]].
 
Historically, '''Boroughs''' were common for small towns and metropolitan areas in Victoria, with only the [[Borough of Queenscliffe]] remaining. Most LGAs retain a particular designation for historical reasons only; all types function very similarly, with an elected council and usually a [[mayor]] responsible for running of the LGA. Mayors in some local governments are popularly elected; most are elected by their fellow councillors from among themselves. The powers of mayors vary as well. In some states such as [[Queensland]] the mayors have broad executive functions; in [[New South Wales]] mayors are essentially ceremonial figureheads who can only exercise power at the discretion of the council.
 
Another term used, especially for the LGA governing bodies is [[G3]], indicating the third tier of Government in Australia.
 
== Powers and Function ==
Local government powers are determined by State governments. There is no explicit mention of local government at all in the Australian constitution. The [[Australian referendum, 1988 (Local Government)|1988 referendum]] sought to explicitly insert mention of local government in the federal constitution but this was comprehensively defeated. Federal government interaction with local councils happens regularly through the provision of federal grants to help fund local government managed projects.
 
All local governments are approximately equal in their theoretical powers, although large cities such as [[Brisbane City Council|Brisbane]] and [[Gold Coast City Council]]s command more resources given their population base. Unlike local governments in many other countries, Australian local governments have little role in providing services such as police or fire protection or schools which are the responsibility of the state or territory government. The councils' chief responsibilities are usually provision of community facilities such as libraries and parks, maintenance of local roads, town planning, and local services such as waste disposal. These are financed by collection of local land taxes and grants from state and national governments. They are caricatured as being concerned only with the 'three Rs' - Rates, Roads and Rubbish. Their limited powers, small outlook and dependence on other bodies to continue operation means local government in Australia is often criticized as being petty, redundant and even unnecessary.
 
However recent years have seen State governments increasingly devolving powers onto LGAs, as in Queensland where LGA's have been granted the power to independently enact their own local [[legislation]], in contrast to the previous system of [[by-laws]].
 
{| class="wikitable"
!Type
![[Local Government Areas of New South Wales|NSW]]
![[Local Government Areas of the Northern Territory|NT]]
![[Local Government Areas of Queensland|Qld]]
![[Local Government Areas of South Australia|SA]]
![[Local Government Areas of Tasmania|Tas]]
![[Local Government Areas of Victoria|Vic]]
![[Local Government Areas of Western Australia|WA]]
!Total
|-
|[[Indigenous Australians|Aboriginal]] shires
|
|
|12
|
|
|
|
|12
|-
|[[Borough]]
|
|
|
|
|
|1
|
|1
|-
|[[Cities]]
|38
|2
|7
|21
|5
|33
|22
|128
|-
|[[Community]] government councils
|
|30
|
|
|
|
|
|30
|-
|[[Councils]]
|28
|
|
|
|6
|4
|
|38
|-
|[[District]] council
|
|
|
|35
|
|
|
|35
|-
|Incorporated associations
|
|26
|
|
|
|
|
|26
|-
|[[Torres Strait Islands|Island]] councils
|
|
|1
|
|
|
|
|1
|-
|[[Municipalities]]
|9
|
|
|
|19
|
|
|28
|-
|[[Regional]] councils
|3
|
|29
|4
|
|
|
|36
|-
|Rural cities
|
|
|
|1
|
|6
|
|7
|-
|[[Shires]]
|75
|1
|24
|
|
|39
|108
|247
|-
|[[Town]]s
|
|4
|1
|2
|
|
|13
|20
|-
|[[Unincorporated area|Unincorporated]]
|[[Unincorporated Far West Region|Far West]]
|
|
|[[Outback Areas Community Development Trust|OACDT]]
|
|3
|
|5
|-
|Total
|152
|63
|74
|69
|29
|79
|144
|610
|}
 
== História ==
== Governo Local reforma== -->
 
== Ver também ==