Diferenças entre edições de "Usuário:Gato Preto/Testes/10"

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[[File:Golos Truda 14-12-1914.jpg|thumb|left|December 4, 1914.]]
 
Após a repressão da [[Revolução Russa de 1905]] e o exílio dos dissidentes políticos do Império Russo, os jornais russos em Nova Iorque cresceram e prosperaram.<ref name="rischin">{{Cite book|last=Rischin|first=Moses|title=The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1914|publisher=[[Harvard University Press]]|authorlink=Moses Rischin|location=Cambridge|year=1977|isbn=0-674-71501-2|oclc=3650290|page=129|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Entre as florescentes publicações encontramos vários jornais e revistas políticas [[Sindicalista|sindicalistas]],<ref name="rischin" /> das quais ''Golos Truda'' fazia parte. Este último começou a ser publicado pela [[União dos Trabalhadores Russos|União dos Trabalhadores Russos nos Estados Unidos e no Canadá]] (''{{Lang-en|Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada''}}) em 1911, inicialmente de forma mensual.<ref>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=255}}</ref> O jornal adaptou como ideologia o anarquismo na sua vertente sindicalismo, o [[anarcossindicalismo]]. Fusionou estas dous movimentos operários que emergeram do [[Congresso Internacional Anarquista de Amsterdã|Congresso Anarquista Internacional de Amesterdão]] em 1907 e que chegaram à América do Norte através da influência do [[Trabalhadores Industriais do Mundo]] ({{Lang-en|Industrial Workers of the World}}).<ref name=":0">{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=igrwb3rsOOUC&lpg=PA118&dq=%22anarcho-syndicalism%22&pg=PA118|título=Modern Political Ideologies|ultimo=Vincent|primeiro=Andrew|data=2009-03-30|editora=John Wiley & Sons|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9781444311051|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Os anarcossindicalistas rejeitavam a luta política nos [[Instituições públicas|orgãos estatais]] e o intelectualismo, considerando que os sindicatos eram as forças revolucionárias que iniciariam uma revolução social que findaria com o estabelecimento duma sociedade anarquista protagonizada pelo proletariado.<ref name=":0" />
 
Tras la represión de la Revolución Rusa de 1905 y el exilio de los disidentes políticos del Imperio Ruso, la prensa escrita en idioma ruso en Nueva York disfrutó de un renacimiento.2​ Entre las publicaciones en ciernes surgieron una serie de periódicos y revistas políticas sindicales, entre las que se incluía Golos Trudá,2​ que comenzó a ser publicado mensualmente por la Unión de Trabajadores de Rusia en los Estados Unidos y Canadá (Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada) en esa ciudad en 1911.3​4​ El periódico adoptó la ideología del anarcosindicalismo, una fusión del sindicalismo y la filosofía anarquista que había salido del Congreso Internacional Anarquista de Ámsterdam (1907) y que llegó a América del Norte a través de la influencia de la IWW. Los anarcosindicalistas rechazaban lucha política de orientación estatal y el intelectualismo, proponiendo en cambio a los sindicatos como agentes revolucionarios que producirían una sociedad anarquista protagonizada principalmente por colectivos de trabajadores.
 
Following the suppression of the [[Russian Revolution of 1905]] and the consequent exile of political dissidents from the Russian Empire, Russian-language journalism in New York City enjoyed a revival. Among the fledgling publications were a number of political newspapers and labor union periodicals, including ''Golos Truda'', which the [[Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada]] began publishing in the city in 1911, initially on a monthly basis. The newspaper adopted its ideology an anarchist version of syndicalism, a fusion of trade unionism and [[anarchist schools of thought|anarchist philosophy]] which had emerged from the 1907 [[International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam]] and along similar lines in America through the influential [[Industrial Workers of the World]].<ref name="vincent">{{Cite book| last = Vincent | first = Andrew | title = Modern Political Ideologies | publisher = Wiley-Blackwell |edition=third | year = 2009 | isbn = 978-1-4051-5495-6 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=igrwb3rsOOUC&lpg=PA118&dq=%22anarcho-syndicalism%22&pg=PA118 |page=118 |chapter=Anarchism |location=[[Chichester]] |oclc=245025406}}</ref> The anarcho-syndicalists rejected state-oriented political struggle and intellectualism, instead proposing labor unions as the revolutionary agents that would bring about an anarchist society characterised primarily by [[worker collective]]s.<ref name="vincent" />
 
At the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the [[Russian Provisional Government]] declared a general amnesty and offered to fund the return of those Russians who had been exiled as political opponents of the Empire; the entire staff of ''Golos Truda'' elected to leave New York City for Russia and to move the periodical to Petrograd.<ref name=rocker>[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker, Rudolf]]. [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html Foreword] to {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> In [[Vancouver]] on May 26, 1917, the editors, along with [[Ferrer Center]] artist [[Manuel Komroff]] and thirteen others, boarded a ship bound for [[Japan]].<ref name=aa>{{Cite book| last = Antliff | first = Allan | authorlink=Allan Antliff |title = Anarchist Modernism | publisher = University of Chicago Press | location = Chicago | year = 2001 | isbn = 0-226-02103-3 |page=254}}</ref> On board, the anarchists played music, gave lectures, staged plays and even published a revolutionary newspaper, ''The Float''.<ref name=aa/> From Japan, the band made their way to [[Siberia]], and proceeded East to European Russia.<ref name=aa/>
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