Diferenças entre edições de "Usuário:Gato Preto/Testes/10"

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Após a repressão da [[Revolução Russa de 1905]] e o exílio dos dissidentes políticos do Império Russo, os jornais russos em Nova Iorque cresceram e prosperaram.<ref name="rischin">{{Cite book|last=Rischin|first=Moses|title=The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1914|publisher=[[Harvard University Press]]|authorlink=Moses Rischin|location=Cambridge|year=1977|isbn=0-674-71501-2|oclc=3650290|page=129|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Entre as florescentes publicações encontramos vários jornais e revistas políticas [[Sindicalista|sindicalistas]],<ref name="rischin" /> das quais ''Golos Truda'' fazia parte. Este último começou a ser publicado pela [[União dos Trabalhadores Russos|União dos Trabalhadores Russos nos Estados Unidos e no Canadá]] ({{Lang-en|Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada}}) em 1911, inicialmente de forma mensual.<ref>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=255}}</ref> O jornal adaptou como ideologia o anarquismo na sua vertente sindicalismo, o [[anarcossindicalismo]]. Fusionou estas dous movimentos operários que emergeram do [[Congresso Internacional Anarquista de Amsterdã|Congresso Anarquista Internacional de Amesterdão]] em 1907 e que chegaram à América do Norte através da influência do [[Trabalhadores Industriais do Mundo]] ({{Lang-en|Industrial Workers of the World}}).<ref name=":0">{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=igrwb3rsOOUC&lpg=PA118&dq=%22anarcho-syndicalism%22&pg=PA118|título=Modern Political Ideologies|ultimo=Vincent|primeiro=Andrew|data=2009-03-30|editora=John Wiley & Sons|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9781444311051|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Os anarcossindicalistas rejeitavam a luta política nos [[Instituições públicas|orgãos estatais]] e o intelectualismo, considerando que os sindicatos eram as forças revolucionárias que iniciariam uma revolução social que findaria com o estabelecimento duma sociedade anarquista protagonizada pelo proletariado.<ref name=":0" />
 
Após o a vitória da [[Revolução de Fevereiro]], o [[Governo Provisório Russo]] declarou amnistia geral e ofereceu-se a sufragar e cobrir os gastos do retorno dos russos exiliados pela sua oposição ao [[czarismo]].<ref>{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.es/books?id=f7J9BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=general+amnesty+russian+exiles+zarism+provisional+government&source=bl&ots=SZNI_EFfnQ&sig=xUxq119Hwi6PHXW7DGcjMElF87s&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwvbPIwOTaAhWL-KQKHVe0D-kQ6AEIYDAG#v=onepage&q=general%20amnesty%20russian%20exiles%20zarism%20provisional%20government&f=false|título=Russian Anarchists|ultimo=Avrich|primeiro=Paul|data=2015-03-08|editora=Princeton University Press|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9781400872480|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Assim, depois duma votação, toda a equipa editorial do ''Golos Truda'' deixou Nova Iorque e assentou-se em Petrogrado, onde continuaram o seu trabalho jornalístico.<ref>{{Citar web|url=http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html|titulo=Voline Biography|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=dwardmac.pitzer.edu}}</ref> Em [[Vancouver]], a 26 de Maio de 1917, os editores, juntamente com os artistas [[Ferrer Center]] e [[Manuel Komroff]] e outras treze pessoas, embarcaram rumo ao [[Japão]]; depois de chegar lá iam para a [[Sibéria]] e dali finalmente atravessá-la até chegar à Rússia europeia.<ref name="aa">{{Cite book|last=Antliff|first=Allan|authorlink=Allan Antliff|title=Anarchist Modernism|publisher=University of Chicago Press|location=Chicago|year=2001|isbn=0-226-02103-3|page=254|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Enquanto embarcados, os anarquistas tocaram música, deram conferências, representaram obras de teatro e até chegaram a publicar um jornal revolucionário, ''A jangada''.<ref name="aa" />
 
Al estallar la Revolución Rusa de 1917, el gobierno provisional ruso declaró una amnistía general y se ofreció a financiar el retorno de los rusos que habían sido exiliados por ser opositores políticos del zarismo. Todo el staff completo que editaba Golos Trudá se trasladó de Nueva York a Petrogrado para continuar editándolo allí. En Vancouver el 26 de mayo de 1917, los editores, junto con el artista Manuel Komroff y otras trece personas, abordaron un barco con destino a Japón, de allí pasaron a Siberia y llegando finalmente a la Rusia europea.
 
At the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the [[Russian Provisional Government]] declared a general amnesty and offered to fund the return of those Russians who had been exiled as political opponents of the Empire; the entire staff of ''Golos Truda'' elected to leave New York City for Russia and to move the periodical to Petrograd.<ref name=rocker>[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker, Rudolf]]. [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html Foreword] to {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> In [[Vancouver]] on May 26, 1917, the editors, along with [[Ferrer Center]] artist [[Manuel Komroff]] and thirteen others, boarded a ship bound for [[Japan]].<ref name=aa>{{Cite book| last = Antliff | first = Allan | authorlink=Allan Antliff |title = Anarchist Modernism | publisher = University of Chicago Press | location = Chicago | year = 2001 | isbn = 0-226-02103-3 |page=254}}</ref> On board, the anarchists played music, gave lectures, staged plays and even published a revolutionary newspaper, ''The Float''.<ref name=aa/> From Japan, the band made their way to [[Siberia]], and proceeded East to European Russia.<ref name=aa/>
 
==Publicação na Rússia==
{{See also|Printed media in the Soviet Union}}
[[File:Voline.jpg|thumb|left|[[Volin]] described ''Golos Truda'''s procedure of revealing misdeeds of those in power, and suggesting alternatives as, "not only its right, but incontestably its strictest duty."<ref name=volinc4/>]]
Though initially the [[Bolsheviks]] had not enjoyed much popularity following the [[February Revolution]]—with liberal Prime Minister [[Alexander Kerensky]] retaining enough support to repress an attempted ''coup d'état'' by the faction in July—they capitalized on the disorder and economic collapse of Russian society, mass worker's strikes and the [[Kornilov affair]] to increase their popularity among—and ultimately control over—the [[Soviet (council)|Soviets]]. Volin lamented that the almost six-month gap between the February Revolution and the launch of ''Golos Truda'' in Russia as "a long and irreparable delay" for the anarchists; they now faced a difficult task, with the majority of the workers having been won over by the powerful, consolidated Bolshevik Party whose propaganda efforts dwarfed those of the anarchists.<ref name=volinc4/>
 
In Petrograd, the work of beginning publication was assisted by the nascent Anarchist-Syndicalist Propaganda Union, <ref name="rocker">[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker, Rudolf]]. [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html Foreword] to {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> and the new paper bolstered the city's indigenous anarchist workers' movement.<ref>{{Cite book| last = Thorpe | first = Wayne | title = The Workers Themselves | publisher = Kluwer Academic | year = 1989 | isbn = 0-7923-0276-1 |page=59}}</ref> Its editorial staff included [[Maksim Rayevsky]], [[Vladimir Shatov]] (the [[Linotype machine|linotype]] operator),<ref name=aa/> [[Volin]],<ref name=av37>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=137}}</ref> [[Gregori Maksimov]], [[Alexander Schapiro]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://robertgraham.wordpress.com/2008/06/28/alexander-schapiro-anarchosyndicalism-and-anarchist-organization/ |authorlink=Robert Graham (historian) |last=Graham |first=Robert |title=Alexander Schapiro - Anarchosyndicalism and Anarchist Organization |work=Robert Graham's Anarchism Weblog |date=June 28, 2008 |accessdate=March 20, 2009}}</ref> and [[Vasya Swieda]].<ref name="iisg">{{Cite web|url=http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/m/10760366full.php|title=G.P. Maksimov Papers|accessdate=March 22, 2009|work=iisg.nl|publisher=[[International Institute of Social History]]}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book| last = Avrich | first = Paul | authorlink=Paul Avrich |title = Anarchist Voices | publisher = [[AK Press]] | location = Stirling | year = 2005 | isbn = 1-904859-27-5 |oclc=64098230 |page=369}}</ref>
 
The first (weekly) issue was published on August 11, 1917, with an editorial stated its firm opposition to the tactics and programs of the Bolsheviks, [[Mensheviks]], [[left Social Revolutionaries]], [[right Social Revolutionaries]] and others, and that the conception of revolutionary action of the anarchist socialists bore no resemblance to those of the Marxist socialists.<ref name=volinc4>Chapter 4, "[http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html The Unknown Anarchist Press in the Russian Revolution]", {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> It declared as its principal goal a revolution that would replace the [[Sovereign state|state]] with a free confederation of autonomous "peasant unions, industrial unions, factory committees, control commissions and the like in locations all over the country".<ref name=uno>{{Cite journal|journal=Golos Truda |issue=1 |date=August 11, 1917 |page=1 |title=Editorial}}</ref> This revolution would be "anti-statist in its methods of struggle, syndicalist in its economic content, and federal in its political tasks".<ref name=uno/> It placed its greatest hopes in the [[factory committee]]s, which had arisen spontaneously around the country after the February Revolution.<ref name=av40>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=140}}</ref>
 
==Repressão e legado==
{{See also|PoliticalRepressão repressionpolítica inna theUnião Soviet UnionSoviética|l1=}}
 
The [[Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets]] issued a press decree that let the Bolsheviks suppress dissident newspapers.<ref name="HoughFainsod1979">{{cite book|last1=Hough|first1=Jerry F.|last2=Fainsod|first2=Merle|title=How the Soviet Union is Governed|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=38gMzMRXCpQC&pg=PA78|year=1979|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-41030-5|page=78}}</ref><!--{{Cite book| last = Schapiro | first = Leonard | title = The Communist Party of the Soviet Union | publisher = Eyre & Spottiswoode | location = London | year = 1970 | isbn = 0-413-27900-6 }}--> After the suppression of the ''Golos Truda'' by the Bolshevik government in August 1918, [[G.P Maximoff]], [[Nikolai Dolenko]] and [[Efim Yartchuk]] established ''Volny Golos Truda'' (''The Free Voice of Labour'').<ref name=iisg/><ref>
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