Diferenças entre edições de "Usuário:Gato Preto/Testes/10"

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==Publicação na Rússia==
[[File:Voline.jpg|thumb|left|[[Volin]] described ''Golos Truda'''s procedure of revealing misdeeds of those in power, and suggesting alternatives as, "not only its right, but incontestably its strictest duty."<ref name="volinc4">Chapter 4, "[http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html The Unknown Anarchist Press in the Russian Revolution]", {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref>]]
Embora no princípio os [[Bolchevique|bolcheviques]] não eram muito populares após a Revolução de Fevereiro–com o primeiro-ministro Aleksandr Kérenski, um liberal, a manter o apoio suficiente para sufocar um golpe de Estado, como o de Julho–aproveitaram a desordem e o colapso económico-social, as greves massivas e o escândalo de Kornílov para aumentar a sua popularidade e, posteriormente, controlar os conselhos operários, os [[sovietes]].<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2017-06-19|titulo=Opinion {{!}} Was Lenin a German Agent?|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/19/opinion/was-lenin-a-german-agent.html|jornal=The New York Times|lingua=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/history/russia/october/revision/3/|titulo=BBC - Higher Bitesize History - The causes of the October Revolution : Revision, Page3|acessodata=2018-05-01|lingua=en-GB}}</ref><ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/provisionalgovernmentrev1.shtml|titulo=BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Provisional Government and its problems|acessodata=2018-05-01|lingua=en-GB}}</ref> Voline lamentaria a lacuna de quase seis meses entre a Revolução de Fevereiro e o estabelicimento do ''Golos Truda'' na Rússia, considerando-o «uma grande e irreparável demora para os anarquistas»; agora, afrontavam uma situação muito complicada, com a maioria dos trabalhadores a seguir o poderoso e consolidado Partido Bolchevique, cuja propaganda<ref>{{Citar periódico|ultimo=Panfilova|primeiro=Vera|data=2017-11-05|titulo=Russia's revolutionary posters|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-41833406|jornal=BBC News|lingua=en-GB|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> tinha permeado por toda a sociedade operária e tinha dizimado os esforços anarquistas.<ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html|titulo=The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=www.ditext.com}}</ref>
 
Em Petrogrado, o trabalho da nova publicação foi auxiliada pela nascente ''União para a Propaganda Anarcossindicalista'',<ref name=":2" /> e o novo jornal aumentou consideravelmente o poder e força do movimento operário anarquista nessa cidade.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Thorpe|first=Wayne|title=The Workers Themselves|publisher=Kluwer Academic|year=1989|isbn=0-7923-0276-1|page=59|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> A sua equipa editorial incluia [[Maksim Rayevsky]], [[Vladimir Shatov]] (o linotipista),<ref name="aa" /> [[Voline]],<ref name=":1" /> [[Gregori Maksimov]], [[Alexander Schapiro]],<ref>{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.es/books?id=ec5UCw2ZCIoC&pg=PT300&lpg=PT300&dq=alexander+schapiro+golos+truda&source=bl&ots=z-BVn2qKsS&sig=gMHLULm2go41AnaMOAbNlaZU0M4&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi08Jb14uTaAhWzZpoKHen4ArgQ6AEIYTAN#v=onepage&q=alexander%20schapiro%20golos%20truda&f=false|título=Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman|ultimo=Avrich|primeiro=Paul|ultimo2=Avrich|primeiro2=Karen|data=2012-11-01|editora=Harvard University Press|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9780674070349|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> e [[Vasya Swieda]].<ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/m/10760366full.php|titulo=IISH - Archives|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=www.iisg.nl}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Avrich|first=Paul|authorlink=Paul Avrich|title=Anarchist Voices|publisher=[[AK Press]]|location=Stirling|year=2005|isbn=1-904859-27-5|oclc=64098230|page=369|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref>
 
A primeira edição semanal foi publicada a 11 de Agosto de 1917, com um editorial que expressou e afirmou vigorosamente a sua oposição ao programa e tácticas dos bolcheviques, dos [[Menchevique|mencheviques]], dos [[Socialistas Revolucionários de Esquerda]], dos [[Partido Socialista Revolucionário (Rússia)|Partido Socialista Revolucionário]] e outros. Destacou também que a concepção da acção dos [[Anarcosocialismo|anarquistas socialistas]] não se assemelhava em nada à dos [[Socialismo marxista|socialistas marxianos]].<ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html|titulo=The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=www.ditext.com}}</ref>
The first (weekly) issue was published on August 11, 1917, with an editorial stated its firm opposition to the tactics and programs of the Bolsheviks, [[Mensheviks]], [[left Social Revolutionaries]], [[right Social Revolutionaries]] and others, and that the conception of revolutionary action of the anarchist socialists bore no resemblance to those of the Marxist socialists.<ref name=volinc4>Chapter 4, "[http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html The Unknown Anarchist Press in the Russian Revolution]", {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> It declared as its principal goal a revolution that would replace the [[Sovereign state|state]] with a free confederation of autonomous "peasant unions, industrial unions, factory committees, control commissions and the like in locations all over the country".<ref name=uno>{{Cite journal|journal=Golos Truda |issue=1 |date=August 11, 1917 |page=1 |title=Editorial}}</ref> This revolution would be "anti-statist in its methods of struggle, syndicalist in its economic content, and federal in its political tasks".<ref name=uno/> It placed its greatest hopes in the [[factory committee]]s, which had arisen spontaneously around the country after the February Revolution.<ref name=av40>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=140}}</ref>
 
The first (weekly) issue was published on August 11, 1917, with an editorial stated its firm opposition to the tactics and programs of the Bolsheviks, [[Mensheviks]], [[left Social Revolutionaries]], [[right Social Revolutionaries]] and others, and that the conception of revolutionary action of the anarchist socialists bore no resemblance to those of the Marxist socialists.<ref name=volinc4>Chapter 4, "[http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html The Unknown Anarchist Press in the Russian Revolution]", {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> It declared as its principal goal a revolution that would replace the [[Sovereign state|state]] with a free confederation of autonomous "peasant unions, industrial unions, factory committees, control commissions and the like in locations all over the country".<ref name="uno">{{Cite journal|journal=Golos Truda |issue=1 |date=August 11, 1917 |page=1 |title=Editorial}}</ref> This revolution would be "anti-statist in its methods of struggle, syndicalist in its economic content, and federal in its political tasks".<ref name="uno" /> It placed its greatest hopes in the [[factory committee]]s, which had arisen spontaneously around the country after the February Revolution.<ref name="av40">{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=140}}</ref>
 
Each of the early issues contained what Volin later described as "clear and definite articles on the way in which the Anarcho-Syndicalists conceived the constructive tasks of the Revolution to come", citing as examples "a series of articles on the role of the factory committees; articles on the tasks of the Soviets, and others on how to resolve the agrarian problem, on the new organization of production, and on exchange".<ref name=volinc4/> It published copious articles on the [[general strike]] as well as on the French ''[[bourses du travail]]'' and ''[[syndicats]]''.<ref name=av39>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=139}}</ref> The paper shifted to daily publication for three months after the [[October Revolution]] of that same year.<ref name="rocker">[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker, Rudolf]]. [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html Foreword] to {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref><ref name=volinc4/> In a series of articles, it proclaimed the necessity of immediately abandoning the [[vanguardist]] Bolshevik [[dictatorship of the proletariat]], and of allowing the workers freedom of association and action.<ref name=volinc4/>
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