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{{ver desambig2|Jeová|Jah}}
[[Imagem:Zeus_Yahweh.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Uma moeda de [[dracma]] do [[século IV a.C.]] da [[Império Aquemênida|província aquemênida]] de [[Jeúde]], possivelmente representando Javé sentado em um trono de sol com asas e rodas.]]
'''Javé''' ({{lang-he|יהוה}}) — (''que foi formulada por modernistas por volta do século XIV'') e é uma adaptação de Javé (''YAHWEH'') — é um dos [[nomes de Deus]] na [[Bíblia]].<ref>''The Jewish Study Bible'', Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 111–112</ref> A palavra ''Javé'' é uma convenção acadêmica para o hebraico יהוה, transcrito em letras romanas como [[Tetragrama YHWH|YHWH]], e conhecido como o ''[[Tetragrama YHVH|Tetragrama]]'', cuja pronuncia e escrita correta são desconhecidas, as traduções do tetragrama de hoje (''destacando-se Javé'') são errôneas pelo fato de não se conhecer a correta tradução do tetragrama YHWH. O significado mais provável de seu nome seria "aquele que traz à existência a tudo que existe", porém existem diversas teorias e nenhuma é tida como conclusiva.<ref name="britannica.com">[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/651183/Yahweh "Yahweh."] ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'' Online. 10 de dezembro de 2009</ref>
'''Javé''' ({{lang-he|יהוה}}) — ''YAHWEH'') foi o deus nacional dos reinos da [[Idade do Ferro]] de [[Reino de Israel|Israel (Samaria)]] e [[Reino de Judá|Judá]], no [[Levante (Mediterrâneo)|Levante]].{{sfn|Miller|1986|p=110}} Suas origens exatas são contestadas, apesar de remontarem à Idade do Ferro primitiva e até à [[Idade do Bronze]] tardia:{{sfn|Smith|2010|p=96-98}}{{sfn|Miller|2000|p=1}} seu nome pode ter começado como um epíteto de [[El (deus)|El]], o principal deus do [[Mitologia cananeia|panteão cananeu]] da Idade do Bronze,{{sfn|Dijkstra|2001|p=92}} mas as mais antigas menções plausíveis de ''Yahweh'' estão em [[Literatura do Antigo Egito|textos egípcios]] que se referem a um nome de local de sonoridade semelhante associado aos [[nômades]] [[shasu]] do sul da [[Transjordânia]].{{sfn|Dever|2003b|p=128}}
 
Na mais antiga literatura bíblica, Javé é um típico "guerreiro divino" do [[Oriente Médio]], que lidera o exército celestial contra os inimigos de Israel;{{sfn|Hackett|2001|pp=158–59}} ele mais tarde se tornou o principal deus do reino de Israel (Samaria) e de Judá,{{sfn|Smith|2002|p=72}} e com o tempo a corte real e o [[Templo de Jerusalém|templo]] promoveram Javé como o deus de todo o [[cosmos]], possuindo todas as qualidades positivas anteriormente atribuídas aos outros deuses e deusas.{{sfn|Wyatt|2010|pp=69–70}}{{sfn|Betz|2000|p=917}} No final do [[exílio babilônico]] ([[século VI a.C.]]), a própria existência de deuses estrangeiros foi negada e Javé passou a ser proclamado como o [[Divindade criadora|criador do universo]] e o [[Deus|verdadeiro deus]] de todo o mundo.{{sfn|Betz|2000|p=917}}
A Bíblia descreve Javé (''YHWH'') como o Deus que [[O Êxodo|libertou Israel do Egito]], e deu os [[Dez Mandamentos]]. "''Então falou Deus todas estas palavras, dizendo: 'Eu sou teu Deus, que te tirei da terra do Egito, da casa de servidão. Não terás outros deuses diante de mim''” (Êxodo 20:1-3 - Sociedade Bíblica Britânica) ,e afirma que Javé se revelou a Israel como um Deus que não permitiria que seu povo fizesse ídolos ou venerasse outros deuses: ”Eu sou o meu nome: a minha glória não a darei a outrem, nem o meu louvor às imagens esculpidas” (Isaías, 42:8 - Sociedade Bíblica Britânica<ref>http://ie8.bibliaonline.com.br/tb/is/42</ref>)
 
== Origens da Idade do Bronze ==
A história do surgimento do [[monoteísmo]] israelita e da adoração a Javé tem sido alvo de estudos acadêmicos desde pelo menos o século XIX, e a obra ''[[Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels|Prolegômenos à História de Israel]]'', de [[Julius Wellhausen]]; no século XX, uma obra formativa foi ''Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan – An Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths'' (1968), de [[William F. Albright]],<ref>''Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: An Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths'' (9780931464010)</ref> que insistiu na diferenciação essencial de Javé dos outros deuses canaanitas já no início da história de Israel. No entanto, estudiosos do [[antigo Oriente Médio]] têm visto, desde então, o culto a Javé como tendo surgido de um contexto [[semítico ocidental]] e [[canaan]]ita.<ref name="Gnuse, Robert K 1997 p. 74-87">Gnuse, Robert K. ''No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism in Israel'', Sheffield Academic Press (1997) p. 74–87</ref><ref name="Mark S. Smith 2002">Mark S. Smith, ''The Early History of God, Yahweh and Other Deities in Ancient Israel'', Eerdmans (2002)</ref> [[Nome teofórico|Nomes teofóricos]], nomes de divindades locais semelhantes a Javé, e evidências arqueológicas foram usadas, juntamente com as fontes bíblicas, para descrever as origens pré-israelistas da adoração a Javé , a relação de Javé com os deuses locais, e o modo com o qual a adoração a Javé evoluiu para o monoteísmo judaico.
[[Imagem:El,_the_Canaanite_creator_deity,_Megiddo,_Stratum_VII,_Late_Bronze_II,_1400-1200_BC,_bronze_with_gold_leaf_-_Oriental_Institute_Museum,_University_of_Chicago_-_DSC07734.JPG|thumb|esquerda|Estátua de [[El (deus)|El]], a principal [[Mitologia cananeia|divindade cananeia]].]]
 
Quase não há acordo sobre as origens de Javé.{{sfn|Kaiser|2017|p=unpaginated}} Seu nome não é atestado a não ser entre os [[israelitas]] e parece não ter nenhuma [[etimologia]] razoável (''Ehyeh ašer ehyeh'', ou "Eu Sou o que Eu Sou", a explicação apresentada em [[Êxodo]] 3:14, parece ser um brilho teológico tardio inventado para explicar o nome ''Yahweh'' no momento em que o significado foi perdido).{{sfn|Hoffman|2004|page=326}}{{sfn|Parke-Taylor|1975|page=51}}
A adoração exclusiva a Javé é uma ideia central do '''[[judaísmo]]''' '''histórico'''.<ref name="Deuteronomy 6 2003 p.6">Deuteronômio, 6:4; Michael D Coogan, ''The Illustrated Guide to World Religions'', Oxford University Press (2003) p. 6</ref> O [[Cristandade|Cristianismo]] todo vê [[Jesus]] como a [[encarnação]] humana de Javé.<ref name="David B. Capes 1992 p. 164">David B. Capes, ''Old Testament Yahweh Texts in Paul’s Christology'', J.C.B. Mohr (1992) p. 164; Walter A Elwell, Philip Wesley Comfort, ''Tyndale Bible Dictionary'', Tyndale (2001) p. 869</ref> A importância do nome divino e o caráter do "único Deus verdadeiro" revelado como Javé frequentemente são contrastadas com o caráter significativamente diferente das divindades locais, conhecidas por diferentes nomes nas religiões politeístas tradicionais.<ref>David B. Capes, ''Old Testament Yahweh Texts in Paul’s Christology'', J.C.B. Mohr (1992) p. 49; Terry R Briley, ''Isaiah'', Volume 1, College Press (2001) p. 48</ref> Alguns acadêmicos, entre eles o [[arqueólogo]] [[Estados Unidos|americano]] [[William G. Dever]], sustentam que [[Aserá]], a [[deusa-mãe]] [[Semitas|semita]], era cultuada na forma de consorte de Javé, até o século VI a.C., quando a [[monolatria]] rígida de Javé se tornou predominante, às vésperas da [[Destruição de Jerusalém|destruição do templo]].<ref name="William G. Dever 2005">William G. Dever, ''Did God Have A Wife?: Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel'', Eerdmans Publishing (2005)</ref><ref name="Judith M. Hadley 2000 pp. 122-136">Judith M. Hadley, ''The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess'', Cambridge University Press (2000) p. 122–136</ref> A hipótese da consorte, no entanto, tem sido debatida extensivamente, e diversos estudiosos publicaram suas discordâncias a seu respeito. <ref>A Shmuel, "Did God Really Have a Wife?", ''[[Biblical Archaeology Review]]'', Vol. 32 (2006) pp. 62–66; Mark S. Smith, ''The Early History of God, Yahweh and Other Deities in Ancient Israel'', Eerdmans (2002), p. xxxii–xxxvi; John Day, ''Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan'', Sheffield Academic Press (2002) p. 50–52; "Who or What Was Yahweh’s Asherah?" André Lemaire, ''[[Biblical Archaeology Review|BAR]]'', 10:06, nov/dez de 1984; Kuntillet ‘Ajrud, Mercer Bible Dictionary, Mercer University Press (1991) p. 494–494; Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, ''Gods, Godesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel'', Fortress Press (1998) p. 237; "Yahweh and His Asherah": the Goddess or Her Symbol? J.A. Emerton, ''Vetus Testamentum'', volume 49, número 3, 1999 , pp. 315–337(23)</ref>
 
Ele não parece ter sido um [[Mitologia cananeia|deus cananeu]], embora os israelitas fossem originalmente [[cananeus]].{{sfn|Day|2002|p=15}}{{sfn|Dever|2003b|p=125}} O chefe do panteão cananeu era [[El (deus)|El]] e uma teoria sustenta que a palavra ''Yahwehu'' é baseada no hebraico HYH/HWH, que significa "causa para existir", como uma forma abreviada da frase ''ˀel ḏū yahwī ṣabaˀôt'', (em [[língua fenícia|fenício]]: ''El 𐤃 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 𐤑𐤁𐤀𐤕'') "El que cria as hostes", que significa a [[hoste celestial]] que acompanha El ao marchar ao lado os exércitos terrestres de Israel.{{sfn|Miller|2000|p=2}}{{sfn|Kaiser|2017|p=unpaginated}} O argumento tem inúmeras fraquezas, incluindo, entre outros, os caracteres diferentes dos dois deuses e o fato de que ''el dū yahwī ṣaba'ôt'' não é em nenhum lugar atestado dentro ou fora da Bíblia.{{sfn|Day|2002|p=13-14}}
Alguns escritores e tradutores definem Yahweh (lê-se: Javé) que quer dizer " Sou Quem Eu Sou " ou " Eu Sou o Que Sou " ou ainda " Eu Me Tornarei O Que Eu Decidir Me Tornar" ('''Eu Sou''' ), século 5 a.C.. e Jehovah (lê-se: Jeová ) que quer dizer " Este é Meu Nome Eternamente " ou " Esse é o meu Nome para Sempre " ('''Eterno''' ), século 13 d.C.. Outros tradutores e estudiosos definem "Jehovah" como a forma mais correta de se pronunciar o nome de Deus.
 
A mais antiga ocorrência plausível registrada de Javé é como um [[topônimo]], "terra de [[shasu]] de yhw", em uma inscrição [[Egito Antigo|egípcia]] da época de [[Amenhotep III]] (1402–1363 a.C.).{{sfn|Freedman|O'Connor|Ringgren|1986|p=520}}{{sfn|Anderson|2015|p=510}} Os shasu eram [[nômades]] de [[Midiã]] e [[Edom]] no norte da [[Arábia]].{{sfn|Grabbe|2007|p=151}} Neste caso, uma etimologia plausível para o nome poderia ser da raiz HWY, que produziria o significado "ele sopra", apropriado a uma divindade do tempo.{{sfn|Dicou|1994|pp=167–81, 177}}{{sfn|Anderson|2015|p=101}} Há um apoio considerável, mas não universal, a esta visão,{{sfn|Grabbe|2007|p=153}} mas levanta a questão de como ele se dirigiu para o norte.{{sfn|Van der Toorn|1999|p=912}}
A origem vem de Êxodo 3: 14,15 " Deus disse então a Moisés: "Eu Me Tornarei O Que Eu Decidir Me Tornar." E acrescentou: "Isto é o que você deve dizer aos israelitas: '"Eu Me Tornarei" me enviou a vocês."' Então Deus disse mais uma vez a Moisés: "Isto é o que você deve dizer aos israelitas: 'Jeová, o Deus dos seus antepassados, o Deus de Abraão, o Deus de Isaque e o Deus de Jacó me enviou a vocês.' Esse é o meu nome para sempre, e é assim que eu serei lembrado de geração em geração."
 
A amplamente aceita hipótese [[Queneus|quenita]] sustenta que os comerciantes trouxeram Javé a Israel ao longo das rotas das caravanas entre o [[Egito Antigo|Egito]] e [[Canaã]].{{sfn|Van der Toorn|1999|pp=912–13}} A força da hipótese dos quenitas é que ela une vários pontos de dados, como a ausência de ''Yahweh'' em Canaã, suas ligações com Edom e Midiã nas histórias bíblicas e os laços quenitas ou [[midianitas]] de [[Moisés]].{{sfn|Van der Toorn|1999|page=912}} Entretanto, embora seja inteiramente plausível que os [[queneus]] e outros povos tenham introduzido Javé a Israel, é improvável que o tenham feito fora das fronteiras de Israel ou sob a égide de Moisés, como a história do [[Êxodo]] descreve.{{sfn|Van der Toorn|1999|pages=912–913}}{{sfn|Van der Toorn|1995|pp=247–48}}
 
== Javé e a ascensão do monoteísmo ==
[[Imagem:Tissot_Solomon_Dedicates_the_Temple_at_Jerusalem.jpg|thumb|[[Salomão]] dedica o templo em Jerusalém (pintura de [[James Tissot]] ou seguidor, c. 1896-1902)]]
 
O Israel pré-exílo, como seus vizinhos, era [[Politeísmo|politeísta]],{{sfn|Albertz|1994|p=61}} sendo que o [[monoteísmo]] israelita foi resultado de circunstâncias históricas únicas.{{sfn|Gnuse|1997|p=214}} O deus original de Israel era [[El (deus)|El]].{{sfn|Romer|2014|p=unpaginated}} No início do [[Tribos de Israel|período tribal]], cada tribo teria seu próprio [[Divindade tutelar|deus patrono]]; quando a realeza emergiu, o Estado promoveu Javé como o deus nacional de Israel, supremo sobre os outros deuses, e gradualmente Javé absorveu todos os traços positivos dos outros deuses e deusas do panteão.{{sfn|Betz|2000|p=917}} Javé e El fundiram-se em centros religiosos como [[Siquém]], [[Shiloh]] e [[Jerusalém]],{{sfn|Smith|2001|p=140}} com o nome de El tornando-se um termo genérico para "deus" e Javé, o deus nacional, apropriando-se de muitos dos títulos do deus supremo mais antigo, como [[El Shaddai]] (Todo Poderoso) e [[Elyon]] (Altíssimo).{{sfn|Smith|2002|pp=33, 47}}
 
[[Aserá]], anteriormente esposa de El, era adorada como [[consorte]]{{sfn|Niehr|1995|pp=54, 57}} ou mãe de Javé;{{sfn|Barker|2012|pages=80–86}} cerâmicas descobertas em Khirbet el-Kôm e Kuntillet Ajrûd fazem referência a "Javé e sua Aserá",{{sfn|Vriezen|van der Woude|2005|pages=17–18}}{{sfn|Barker|2012|page=32}} e várias passagens bíblicas indicam que suas estátuas foram guardadas em seus templos em Jerusalém, [[Betel]] e [[Samaria]].{{sfn|Ackerman|2003|p=395}}{{sfn|Barker|2012|pages=154–157}} Javé também pode ter se apropriado de [[Anat]], a esposa de [[Baal]], como sua consorte, como Anat-Yahu ("Anat de Yahu", isto é, Javé) é mencionado nos registros do [[século V a.C.]] da colônia judaica em [[Elefantina]] no Egito.{{sfn|Day|2002|p=143}} Uma deusa chamada a [[Rainha do Céu]] também era adorada, provavelmente uma fusão de [[Astarte]] e a deusa mesopotâmica [[Ishtar]],{{sfn|Ackerman|2003|p=395}} possivelmente um título de Aserá.{{sfn|Barker|2012|page=41}} A adoração de Baal e Javé coexistiram no período inicial da história de Israel, mas eles passaram a ser considerados irreconciliáveis ​​após o [[século IX a.C.]], seguindo os esforços do rei [[Acabe]] e sua rainha [[Jezabel]] para elevar Baal ao ''status'' de deus nacional,{{sfn|Smith|2002|p=47}} embora o culto a Baal tenha continuado por algum tempo.{{sfn|Smith|2002|p=74}}
 
A adoração a Javé começou com [[Elias]] no século IX a.C., mas mais provavelmente com o profeta [[Oséias]] no [[século VIII a.C.]]; mesmo assim, permaneceu como uma adoração de um pequeno grupo antes de ganhar ascendência no exílio e no início do período pós-exílo.{{sfn|Albertz|1994|p=61}} Os primeiros defensores desta facção são amplamente considerados [[Monolatria|monolatristas]] ao invés de verdadeiros monoteístas;{{sfn|Eakin|1971|pages=70 e 263}} eles não acreditavam que Javé era o único deus existente, mas acreditavam que ele era o único deus que o povo de Israel deveria adorar.{{sfn|McKenzie|1990|page=1287}} Finalmente, na crise nacional do exílio, os seguidores de Javé deram um passo à frente e passaram a negar que outras divindades, além de Javé, existissem, marcando assim a transição da monolatria para o verdadeiro monoteísmo.{{sfn|Betz|2000|p=917}}
 
== Sincretismo greco-romano ==
{{AP|Declínio do politeísmo greco-romano}}
Javé é frequentemente invocado em textos mágicos [[Mundo greco-romano|greco-romanos]] que datam do [[século II a.C.]] até o [[século V]], mais notavelmente nos [[Papiros Mágicos Gregos]],{{sfn|Betz|1996|p=}} sob os nomes [[YHWH|Iao]], [[Adonai]], [[Sabaoth]] e [[Elohim|Eloai]]. Nesses textos, ele é frequentemente mencionado ao lado de [[Mitologia greco-romana|divindades greco-romanas]] tradicionais e também [[Mitologia egípcia|divindades egípcias]].{{sfn|Smith|Cohen|1996b|pp=242–56}} Os [[arcanjo]]s [[Miguel (arcanjo)|Miguel]], [[Gabriel (arcanjo)|Gabriel]], [[Rafael (arcanjo)|Rafael]] e [[Uriel]] e os heróis culturais judeus, como [[Abraão]], [[Jacó]] e [[Moisés]], também são invocados com frequência.{{sfn|Arnold|1996|p=}} A ocorrência frequente do nome de Javé deve-se provavelmente a magos gregos e romanos que procuram tornar seus feitiços mais poderosos através da invocação de uma prestigiosa divindade estrangeira.{{sfn|Smith|Cohen|1996b|pp=242–256}}
 
[[Tácito]], [[João Lídio]] e [[Cornélio Labeo]], todos identificam Javé com o [[Mitologia grega|deus grego]] [[Dionísio]].{{sfn|McDonough|1999|page=88}} Os próprios [[judeus]] frequentemente usavam símbolos que também eram associados a Dionísio, como [[cílice]]s, [[ânfora]]s, folhas de hera e cachos de uvas.{{sfn|Smith|Cohen|1996a|page=233}} Em sua ''[[Moralia|Quaestiones Convivales]]'', o escritor grego [[Plutarco]] escreve que os judeus saúdam seu deus com gritos de "''euoi''" e "''sabi''", frases associadas com a adoração de Dionísio.<ref>[[Plutarco]], [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0312%3Abook%3D4%3Achapter%3D6 ''Quaestiones Convivales'', Question VI]</ref>{{sfn|McDonough|1999|page=89}}{{sfn|Smith|Cohen|1996a|pages=232–233}} De acordo com Sean M. McDonough, os falantes de [[Língua grega antiga|grego]] podem ter confundido palavras [[Língua aramaica|aramaicas]] como ''[[sabbath]]'', ''[[aleluia]]'' ou mesmo possivelmente alguma variante do nome Javé para termos mais familiares associados a Dionísio.{{sfn|McDonough|1999|pages=89–90}}
 
==Ver também==
 
{{Referências|col=2}}
 
== Bibliografia ==
{{dividir em colunas}}
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book
|last = Ackerman
|first = Susan
|author-link = Susan Ackerman (biblical scholar)
|chapter = Goddesses
|editor1-last = Richard
|editor1-first = Suzanne
|title = Near Eastern Archaeology:A Reader
|publisher = Eisenbrauns
|year = 2003
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=khR0apPid8gC&pg=PA394#v=onepage&q=Anat-Yahu%20Yahweh&f=false
|isbn = 978-1-57506-083-5
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Ahlström
|first = Gösta Werner
|chapter = The Role of Archaeological and Literary Remains in Reconstructing Israel's History
|editor1-last = Edelman
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|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 1991
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=8ocfaZ6NaIMC&pg=PA116
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567491107
}}
* {{cite book|author=Ahlström, Gösta Werner |title=The History of Ancient Palestine|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5cSAlLBZKaAC&pg=PA277|year=1993|publisher=Fortress Press|isbn=978-0-8006-2770-6}}
* {{cite book
|last = Albertz
|first = Rainer
|title = A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy
|publisher = Westminster John Knox
|year = 1994
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=yvZUWbTftSgC&pg=PA89&dq=%22the+real+centre+of+the+main+cult%22%22three+great+annual+festivals%22#v=onepage&q=%22the%20real%20centre%20of%20the%20main%20cult%22%22three%20great%20annual%20festivals%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780664227197
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Allen
|first = Spencer L.
|title = The Splintered Divine: A Study of Istar, Baal, and Yahweh Divine Names and Divine Multiplicity in the Ancient Near East
|publisher = Walter de Gruyter
|year = 2015
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=ou9eCAAAQBAJ&pg=PP6&dq=The+Splintered+Divine#v=onepage&q=The%20Splintered%20Divine&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781501500220
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Anderson
|first = James S.
|title = Monotheism and Yahweh's Appropriation of Baal
|publisher = Bloomsbury
|year = 2015
|url = https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vr7NCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA101
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567663962
}}
* {{cite book|last = Barker|first = Margaret|authorlink=Margaret Barker|title = The Great Angel: A Study of Israel's Second God|publisher = Westminster John Knox Press|year = 1992|url = https://books.google.com/?id=y63GE5Tw3KMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=978-0664253950#v=onepage&q&f=false|ref = barker|isbn = 9780664253950}}
* {{citation|last=Barker|first=Margaret|date=2012|series=The Mother of the Lord|volume=1|title=The Lady in the Temple|url=https://books.google.com/?id=j1smp_frb6cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Margaret+Barker+The+Mother+of+the+Lord#v=onepage&q=Margaret%20Barker%20The%20Mother%20of%20the%20Lord&f=false|location=London, England|publisher=Bloomsbury T&T Clark|isbn=978-0567362469|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
|last = Becking
|first = Bob
|chapter = The Gods in Whom They Trusted
|editor1-last = Becking
|editor1-first = Bob
|title = Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 2001
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=eMneBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA189&dq=Only+One+God#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567232120
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Bennett
|first = Harold V.
|title = Injustice Made Legal: Deuteronomic Law and the Plight of Widows, Strangers, and Orphans in Ancient Israel
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2002
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=2wunawFdWaMC&pg=PA83&dq=%22Shiloh,+Bethel,+Gilgal,+Mizpah,+Ramah,+and+Dan%22#v=onepage&q=%22Shiloh%2C%20Bethel%2C%20Gilgal%2C%20Mizpah%2C%20Ramah%2C%20and%20Dan%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780802839091
}}
* {{cite book
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|first = Jon L.
|title = Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period
|publisher = SBL Press
|year = 2007
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=X8uK-dZr_BAC&pg=PA3&dq=%22a+new+image+of+Yehud+has+emerged%22#v=onepage&q=%22a%20new%20image%20of%20Yehud%20has%20emerged%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781589831452
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Betz
|first = Arnold Gottfried
|chapter = Monotheism
|editor1-last = Freedman
|editor1-first = David Noel
|editor2-last = Myer
|editor2-first = Allen C.
|title = Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2000
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=qRtUqxkB7wkC&pg=PA917#v=onepage&q=bible%20monotheism%20Betz&f=false
|isbn = 978-9053565032
|ref = harv
}}
*{{cite book|ref=harv|last1=Betz|first1=Hans Dieter|title=The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the Demonic Spells|date=1996|publisher=University of Chicago Press|location=Chicago, Illinois|isbn=978-0226044477|edition=2}}
* {{cite book
|last = Chalmers
|first = Aaron
|title = Exploring the Religion of Ancient Israel: Prophet, Priest, Sage and People
|publisher = SPCK
|year = 2012
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=v1epAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT123&dq=%22The+OT+points+to+a+close+association+between+Yahweh+and+El%22#v=onepage&q=%22The%20OT%20points%20to%20a%20close%20association%20between%20Yahweh%20and%20El%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780281069002
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*{{cite book|ref=harv|last1=Arnold|first1=Clinton E.|title=The Colossian Syncretism: The Interface Between Christianity and Folk Belief at Colossae|date=1996|publisher=Mohr Siebeck|location=Eugene, Oregon|isbn=978-1-4982-1757-6}}
* {{cite book
|last = Cohen
|first = Shaye J.D.
|chapter = The Temple and the Synagogue
|editor1-last = Finkelstein
|editor1-first = Louis
|editor2-last = Davies
|editor2-first = W. D.
|editor3-last = Horbury
|editor3-first = William
|title = The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 3, The Early Roman Period
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|year = 1999
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=MA-4VX5gWS4C&pg=PA300&dq=Jerusalem+Temple+holy+cosmos+model+reflection#v=onepage&q=Jerusalem%20Temple%20holy%20cosmos%20model%20reflection&f=false
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|isbn = 9780521243773
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* {{cite book
|last = Cohn
|first = Norman
|title = Cosmos, Chaos, and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith
|publisher = Yale University Press
|year = 2001
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=dXpW9gsIJXsC&pg=PA132&dq=%22Yahweh+became+the+patron+god+of+the+kingdom%22#v=onepage&q=%22Yahweh%20became%20the%20patron%20god%20of%20the%20kingdom%22&f=false
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|isbn = 978-0300090888
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* {{cite book
|last = Collins
|first = John J.
|title = The Bible After Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2005
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=yqClWOhqso0C&pg=PA99&dq=%22Israelite+Religion:+The+Return+of+the+Goddess%22#v=onepage&q=%22Israelite%20Religion%3A%20The%20Return%20of%20the%20Goddess%22&f=false
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|isbn = 9780802828927
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* {{cite book
|last1 = Coogan
|first1 = Michael David
|last2 = Brettler
|first2 = Marc Zvi
|last3 = Newsom
|first3 = Carol Ann
|chapter = Editors' Introduction
|editor1-last = Coogan
|editor1-first = Michael David
|editor2-last = Brettler
|editor2-first = Marc Zvi
|editor3-last = Newsom
|editor3-first = Carol Ann
|title = The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|year = 2007
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=Nc-i_pQsiW8C&pg=PR22&dq=%22fundamental+continuity+with+preexilic+traditions%22#v=onepage&q=%22fundamental%20continuity%20with%20preexilic%20traditions%22&f=false
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|isbn = 9780195288803
}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Coogan
|first1 = Michael D.
|last2 = Smith
|first2 = Mark S.
|title = Stories from Ancient Canaan (2nd Edition)
|publisher = Presbyterian Publishing Corp
|year = 2012
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=G49SJI183IkC
|isbn = 978-9053565032
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Cook
|first = Stephen L.
|title = The Social Roots of Biblical Yahwism
|publisher = Society of Biblical Literature
|year = 2004
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=4LEA7FnNi-kC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781589830981
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Darby
|first = Erin
|title = Interpreting Judean Pillar Figurines: Gender and Empire in Judean Apotropaic Ritual
|publisher = Mohr Siebeck
|year = 2014
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=q4LXDvCwogQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9783161524929
}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Davies
|first1 = Philip R.
|last2 = Rogerson
|first2 = John
|title = The Old Testament World
|publisher = Westminster John Knox
|year = 2005
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=1MMF6Titau8C&pg=PA151&dq=%22sacrifices+and+psalms%22#v=onepage&q=%22sacrifices%20and%20psalms%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567084880
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Davies
|first = Philip R.
|chapter = Urban Religion and Rural Religion
|editor1-last = Stavrakopoulou
|editor1-first = Francesca
|editor2-last = Barton
|editor2-first = John
|title = Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah
|publisher = Continuum International Publishing Group
|year = 2010
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=kG_9-vki4ocC&pg=PA112&dq=%22impression+that+Jerusalem+was+always+supposed+to+be+the+central,+even+exclusive,+temple+of+Yahweh%22#v=onepage&q=%22impression%20that%20Jerusalem%20was%20always%20supposed%20to%20be%20the%20central%2C%20even%20exclusive%2C%20temple%20of%20Yahweh%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567032164
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Day
|first = John
|authorlink = John Day (Old Testament scholar)
|title = Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan
|publisher = Continuum
|year = 2002
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=2xadCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA49&dq=Kuntillet+Ajrud+Yahweh+and+his+asherah#v=onepage&q=Kuntillet%20Ajrud%20Yahweh%20and%20his%20asherah&f=false
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* {{cite book
|last = Dever
|first = William G.
|chapter = Religion and Cult in the Levant
|editor1-last = Richard
|editor1-first = Suzanne
|title = Near Eastern Archaeology:A Reader
|publisher = Eisenbrauns
|year = 2003a
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=khR0apPid8gC&pg=PA388
|isbn = 978-1-57506-083-5
|ref = harv
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* {{cite book
|last = Dever
|first = William G.
|title = Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2003b
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=A_ByXkpofAgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=who+were+the+early+israelites#v=onepage&q=who%20were%20the%20early%20israelites&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780802844163
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Dever
|first = William G.
|title = Did God Have A Wife?: Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2005
|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IGR7-OSz7bUC
|isbn = 978-0-8028-2852-1
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Dicou
|first = Bert
|title = Edom, Israel's Brother and Antagonist: The Role of Edom in Biblical Prophecy and Story
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 1994
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=B3ytAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA167&dq=%22I+shall+discuss+the+theme+of+Edom%27s+brotherhood%22#v=onepage&q=%22I%20shall%20discuss%20the%20theme%20of%20Edom%27s%20brotherhood%22&f=false
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Dijkstra
|first = Meindert
|chapter = El the God of Israel-Israel the People of YHWH: On the Origins of Ancient Israelite Yahwism
|editor1-last = Becking
|editor1-first = Bob
|editor2-last = Dijkstra
|editor2-first = Meindert
|editor3-last = Korpel
|editor3-first = Marjo C.A.
|editor4-last = Vriezen
|editor4-first = Karel J.H.| display-editors = 3
|title = Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 2001
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=z72KmReV-bIC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=%22El+who+is+present,+who+makes+himself+manifest%22#v=onepage&q=%22El%20who%20is%20present%2C%20who%20makes%20himself%20manifest%22&f=false
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|isbn = 9781841271996
}}
* Eakin, Frank E. Jr. ''The Religion and Culture of Israel'' (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1971), 70 and 263.
* {{cite book
|last = Edelman
|first = Diana V.
|chapter = Tracking Observance of the Aniconic Tradition
|editor1-last = Edelman
|editor1-first = Diana Vikander
|title = The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms
|publisher = Peeters Publishers
|year = 1995
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=bua2dMa9fJ4C&pg=PA45
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Elior
|first = Rachel
|chapter = Early Forms of Jewish Mysticism
|editor1-last = Katz
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|title = The Cambridge History of Judaism: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|year = 2006
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=BjtWLZhhMoYC&pg=PA779&dq=%22High+Priest+once+a+year+on+the+Day+of+Atonement%22#v=onepage&q=%22High%20Priest%20once%20a%20year%20on%20the%20Day%20of%20Atonement%22&f=false
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|isbn = 9780521772488
}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Finkelstein
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|last2 = Silberman
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|title = The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts
|publisher = Simon and Schuster
|year = 2002
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&dq=The+Bible+Unearthed
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* {{cite book
|last1 = Freedman
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|chapter = YHWH
|editor1-last = Botterweck
|editor1-first = G.J.
|editor2-last = Ringgren
|editor2-first = H.
|title = Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament
|volume= 5
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 1986
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=pcAkKMECPKIC&pg=PA500&dq=%22The+tetragrammaton+YHWH+is+the+personal+name+of+the+god+of+Moses%22#v=onepage&q=%22The%20tetragrammaton%20YHWH%20is%20the%20personal%20name%20of%20the%20god%20of%20Moses%22&f=false
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}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Frerichs
|first1 = Ernest S.
|title = The Bible and Bibles in America
|publisher = Scholars Press
|year = 1998
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=dqvYAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Bible+and+Bibles+in+America&q=Sacred+Name+Movement
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Gnuse
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|title = No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism in Israel
|publisher = Continuum
|year = 1997
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=_lmvAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
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}}
* {{cite journal
| last1 = Gnuse
| first1 = Robert
| date = 1999
| title = The Emergence of Monotheism in Ancient Israel: A Survey of Recent Scholarship
| journal = Religion
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| issue = 4
| pages = 315–36
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| doi=10.1006/reli.1999.0198
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* {{cite book
|last = Gorman
|first = Frank H., Jr.
|chapter = Feasts, Festivals
|editor1-last = Freedman
|editor1-first = David Noel
|editor2-last = Myers
|editor2-first = Allen C.
|title = Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
|publisher = Amsterdam University Press
|year = 2000
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=qRtUqxkB7wkC&pg=PA458&dq=%22saving+actions+on+behalf+of+the+nation%22#v=onepage&q=%22saving%20actions%20on%20behalf%20of%20the%20nation%22&f=false
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* {{cite book
|last = Grabbe
|first = Lester L.
|title = An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 2010
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=i89-9fdNUcAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780567552488
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Grabbe
|first = Lester
|chapter = 'Many nations will be joined to YHWH in that day': The question of YHWH outside Judah
|editor1-last = Stavrakopoulou
|editor1-first = Francesca
|editor2-last = Barton
|editor2-first = John
|title = Religious diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah
|publisher = Continuum International Publishing Group
|year = 2010
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=kG_9-vki4ocC&pg=PA184&dq=%22Yhwh+deity+and+Yhwh+cults+were+unique+to+Israel+and+Judah%22#v=onepage&q=%22Yhwh%20deity%20and%20Yhwh%20cults%20were%20unique%20to%20Israel%20and%20Judah%22&f=false
|isbn = 978-0-567-03216-4
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Grabbe
|first = Lester
|title = Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 2007
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=IvfTAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Hackett
|first = Jo Ann
|author-link = Jo Ann Hackett
|chapter = 'There Was No King In Israel': The Era of the Judges
|editor1-last = Coogan
|editor1-first = Michael David
|title = The Oxford History of the Biblical World
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|year = 2001
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=zFhvECwNQD0C&pg=PA132#v=onepage&q=There%20was%20no%20king%20in%20Israel&f=false
|isbn = 978-0-19-513937-2
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Halpern
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|last2 = Adams
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|title = From Gods to God: The Dynamics of Iron Age Cosmologies
|publisher = Mohr Siebeck
|year = 2009
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=SBmg9umxM2MC&pg=PA26&dq=%22crystallized+at+the+close+of+the+Bronze+Age%22%22worship+of+the+national+god%22#v=onepage&q=%22crystallized%20at%20the%20close%20of%20the%20Bronze%20Age%22%22worship%20of%20the%20national%20god%22&f=false
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Handy
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|title = Among the Host of Heaven: The Syro-Palestinian Pantheon as Bureaucracy
|publisher = Eisenbrauns
|year = 1994
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=fx1by4b1HzEC&pg=PA101&dq=%22Baal%27s+sphere+of+influence%22#v=onepage&q=%22Baal%27s%20sphere%20of%20influence%22&f=false
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}}
* {{cite book|last=Hess|first=Richard S.|authorlink=Richard Hess|title=Israelite Religions: An Archaeological and Biblical Survey
|publisher=Baker Academic|date=2007|url=https://books.google.com/?id=2aJzBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA103&dq=%22four+tiers+of+deities%22#v=onepage&q=%22four%20tiers%20of%20deities%22&f=false|isbn=9780801027178|ref=harv}}
* {{citation|last=Hess|first=Richard S.|date=2012|chapter=Yahweh's "Wife" and Belief in One God in the Old Testament|title=Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith?: A Critical Appraisal of Modern and Postmodern Approaches to Scripture|editor1-last=Hoffmeier|editor1-first=James K.|editor2-last=Magary|editor2-first=Dennis R.|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/?id=Lc_R1E1wD9cC&pg=PA472&dq=Kuntillet+Ajrud+Yahweh+and+his+Asherah+potsherd+Bes+music#v=onepage&q=Kuntillet%20Ajrud%20Yahweh%20and%20his%20Asherah%20potsherd%20Bes%20music&f=false|location=Wheaton, Illinois|publisher=Crossway|pages=459–476|isbn=978-1-4335-2574-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
|last = Hoffman
|first = Joel
|title = In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language
|publisher = NYU Press
|year = 2004
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=5TShBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA236&dq=%22yahweh+is+unattested+before+the+hebrews%22#v=onepage&q=%22yahweh%20is%20unattested%20before%20the%20hebrews%22&f=false
|isbn = 9780814737064
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Humphries
|first = W. Lee
|chapter = God, Names of
|editor1-last = Mills
|editor1-first = Watson E.
|editor2-last = Bullard
|editor2-first = Roger Aubrey
|title = Mercer Dictionary of the Bible
|publisher = Mercer University Press
|year = 1990
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=goq0VWw9rGIC&pg=PA340&dq=%22used+in+the+Septuagint+where+Yahweh+appears%22#v=onepage&q=%22used%20in%20the%20Septuagint%20where%20Yahweh%20appears%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780865543737
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Kaiser
|first = Walter C., Jr.
|title = Exodus
|publisher = Zondervan
|year = 2017
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=qTIDDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT108&dq=%22on+the+etymology+and+meaning+of+the+name+Yahweh,+there+is+almost+no+agreement%22#v=onepage&q=%22on%20the%20etymology%20and%20meaning%20of%20the%20name%20Yahweh%2C%20there%20is%20almost%20no%20agreement%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780310531739
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Keel
|first = Othmar
|title = The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography and the Book of Psalms
|publisher = Eisenbrauns
|year = 1997
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=Fy4B1iMg33YC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781575060149
}}
* {{citation|last=Leech|first=Kenneth|date=2002|orig-year=1985|title=Experiencing God: Theology as Spirituality|url=https://books.google.com/?id=q5lKAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA60&dq=Yahweh+adonai+second+temple#v=onepage&q=Yahweh%20adonai%20second%20temple&f=false|location=Eugene, Oregon|publisher=Wipf and Stock Publishers|isbn=978-1579106133|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
|last = Lemche
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|title = The Israelites in History and Tradition
|publisher = Westminster John Knox Press
|year = 1998
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=JIoY7PagAOAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780664227272
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Levin
|first = Christoph
|year = 2013
|title = Re-Reading the Scriptures: Essays on the Literary History of the Old Testament
|publisher = Mohr Siebeck
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=aSNZ76USaYgC&pg=PA247&dq=%22ninth+century+onwards%22%22court+cult+definitely+bound+to+Yahweh%22#v=onepage&q=%22ninth%20century%20onwards%22%22court%20cult%20definitely%20bound%20to%20Yahweh%22&f=false
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Liverani
|first = Mario
|title = Israel's History and the History of Israel
|publisher = Routledge
|year = 2014
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|isbn = 978-1317488934
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}}
* {{cite book
|last = Mafico
|first = Temba L.J.
|chapter = The Divine Name Yahweh Alohim from an African Perspective
|editor1-last = Segovia
|editor1-first = Fernando F.
|editor2-last = Tolbert
|editor2-first = Mary Ann
|title = Reading from this Place: Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in Global Perspective
|volume = 2
|publisher = Fortress Press
|year = 1992
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=PDE8sUdAyosC&pg=PA21&dq=The+Divine+Name+Yahweh+Alohim+from+an+African+Perspective#v=onepage&q=The%20Divine%20Name%20Yahweh%20Alohim%20from%20an%20African%20Perspective&f=false
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|isbn = 9781451407884
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Mastin
|first = B.A.
|chapter = Yahweh's Asherah, Inclusive Monotheism and the Question of Dating
|editor1-last = Day
|editor1-first = John
|title = In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel
|publisher = Bloomsbury
|year = 2005
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=sUuvAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA326
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|isbn = 9780567245540
}}
* {{citation|last=McDonough|first=Sean M.|date=1999|title=YHWH at Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting|url=https://books.google.com/?id=c0ZG4P8J1roC&pg=PA89&dq=Plutarch+Yahweh+Dionysus#v=onepage&q=Plutarch%20Yahweh%20Dionysus&f=false|series=Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2. Reihe|volume=107|location=Tübingen, Germany|publisher=Mohr Siebeck|isbn=978-3-16-147055-4|issn=0340-9570|ref=harv}}
* [[John L. McKenzie|McKenzie, John L.]] "Aspects of Old Testament Thought" in Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, eds., ''The New Jerome Biblical Commentary'' (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990), 1287, S.v. 77:17.
* {{cite book
|last = Mettinger
|first = Tryggve N.D.
|chapter = A Conversation With My Critics: Cultic Image or Aniconism in the First Temple?
|editor1-last = Amit
|editor1-first = Yaira
|editor2-last = Naʼaman
|editor2-first = Nadav
|title = Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context
|publisher = Eisenbrauns
|year = 2006
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=Ku4OKVrEd4MC&pg=PA273&dq=%22the+prohibition+of+images+was+a+late+idea%22%22in+a+very+late+Deuteronomistic+layer%22#v=onepage&q=%22the%20prohibition%20of%20images%20was%20a%20late%20idea%22%22in%20a%20very%20late%20Deuteronomistic%20layer%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781575061283
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Meyers
|first = Carol
|chapter = Kinship and Kingship: The early Monarchy
|editor1-last = Coogan
|editor1-first = Michael David
|title = The Oxford History of the Biblical World
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|year = 2001
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=gM-tZeEO4wgC&pg=PA166&dq=%22monarchic+state%22%22formal+concentration+of+power%22#v=onepage&q=%22monarchic%20state%22%22formal%20concentration%20of%20power%22&f=false
|isbn = 978-0-19-513937-2
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = MacDonald
|first = Nathan
|chapter = Aniconism in the Old Testament
|editor1-last = Gordon
|editor1-first = R.P.
|title = The God of Israel
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|year = 2007
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=ZrGfxNqfszsC&pg=PA21&dq=%22Aniconism+in+the+Old+Testament%22#v=onepage&q=%22Aniconism%20in%20the%20Old%20Testament%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780521873659
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Miller
|first = Patrick D
|author-link = Patrick D. Miller
|title = The Religion of Ancient Israel
|publisher = Westminster John Knox Press
|year = 2000
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=JBhY9BQ7hIQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+religion+of+ancient+israel#v=onepage&q&f=false
|isbn = 978-0-664-22145-4
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Miller
|first = Patrick D
|author-link = Patrick D. Miller
|title = A History of Ancient Israel and Judah
|publisher = Westminster John Knox Press
|year = 1986
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=uDijjc_D5P0C&pg=PA110&dq=%22Yahweh%22%22national+god+of+Israel+and+Judah%22#v=onepage&q=%22Yahweh%22%22national%20god%20of%20Israel%20and%20Judah%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780664212629
}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Moore
|first1 = Megan Bishop
|last2 = Kelle
|first2 = Brad E.
|title = Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2011
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=Qjkz_8EMoaUC&pg=PA125
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780802862600
}}
* Nestor, Dermot Anthony, ''Cognitive Perspectives on Israelite Identity,'' Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010
* {{cite book
|last = Niehr
|first = Herbert
|chapter = The Rise of YHWH in Judahite and Israelite Religion
|editor1-last = Edelman
|editor1-first = Diana Vikander
|title = The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms
|publisher = Peeters Publishers
|year = 1995
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=bua2dMa9fJ4C&pg=PA45
|isbn = 978-9053565032
|ref = harv
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Noll
|first = K.L.
|title = Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 2001
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=XSpoCmOe0S8C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781841272580
}}
* {{citation|last=Parke-Taylor|first=G. H.|date=1975|title=Yahweh: The Divine Name in the Bible|location=Waterloo, Ontario|publisher=Wilfrid Laurier University Press|url=https://books.google.com/?id=XZhkDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA47&dq=%22a+satisfactory+etymological+origin+for+the+tetragrammaton%22#v=onepage&q=%22a%20satisfactory%20etymological%20origin%20for%20the%20tetragrammaton%22&f=false|isbn=978-0-88920-013-5|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
|last = Petersen
|first = Allan Rosengren
|title = The Royal God: Enthronement Festivals in Ancient Israel and Ugarit?
|publisher = A&C Black
|year = 1998
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=4YetAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&dq=%22the+enthronement+festival+of+Yahweh%22#v=onepage&q=%22the%20enthronement%20festival%20of%20Yahweh%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9781850758648
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Romer
|first = Thomas
|title = The Invention of Yahweh
|publisher = Harvard University Press
|year = 2014
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=XmsuCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT76&dq=%22the+proper+name+of+a+god,+el%22#v=onepage&q=%22the%20proper%20name%20of%20a%20god%2C%20el%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780674915756
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Schniedewind
|first = William M.
|title = A Social History of Hebrew: Its Origins Through the Rabbinic Period
|publisher = Yale University Press
|year = 2013
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=CcjYAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA93
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780300176681
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Mark S.
|chapter = El
|editor1-last = Freedman
|editor1-first = David Noel
|editor2-last = Myer
|editor2-first = Allen C.
|title = Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 2000
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=qRtUqxkB7wkC&pg=PA385&dq=%22facts+militate+against+an+identification+of+Yahweh+as+originally+a+title+of+El%22#v=onepage&q=%22facts%20militate%20against%20an%20identification%20of%20Yahweh%20as%20originally%20a%20title%20of%20El%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9789053565032
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Mark S.
|year = 2001
|authorlink = Mark S. Smith
|title = The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=n0v0NB5-n3sC&printsec=frontcover&dq=mark+smith+2001#v=onepage&q=mark%20smith%202001&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780195167689
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Mark S.
|year = 2002
|authorlink = Mark S. Smith
|title = The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel
|publisher = Eerdmans
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=1yM3AuBh4AsC&pg=PA28&dq=%22Iron+I+Israel+was+largely+Canaanite%22#v=onepage&q=%22Iron%20I%20Israel%20was%20largely%20Canaanite%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|edition = 2nd
|isbn = 9780802839725
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Mark S.
|chapter = Astral Religion and the Divinity
|editor1-last = Noegel
|editor1-first = Scott
|editor2-last = Walker
|editor2-first = Joel
|title = Prayer, Magic, and the Stars in the Ancient and Late Antique World
|publisher = Penn State Press
|year = 2003
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=gb-jl0nef-4C&pg=PA187&dq=%22West+Semitic+religion+in+general+owes+much+to+astral+religion%22#v=onepage&q=%22West%20Semitic%20religion%20in%20general%20owes%20much%20to%20astral%20religion%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 978-0271046006
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Mark S.
|year = 2010
|authorlink = Mark S. Smith
|title = God in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World
|publisher = Eerdmans
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=yvWlC0kUlkYC&pg=PA119&dq=%22various+chief+gods%22%22stand+more+or+less+on+par%22#v=onepage&q=%22various%20chief%20gods%22%22stand%20more%20or%20less%20on%20par%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780802864338
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Smith
|first = Morton
|chapter = Jewish Religious Life in the Persian Period
|editor1-last = Finkelstein
|editor1-first = Louis
|title = The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 1, Introduction: The Persian Period
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|year = 1984
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=Jo0LKxcMJKAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780521218801
}}
*{{cite book|last1=Smith|first1=Morton|author1-link=Morton Smith|last2=Cohen|first2=Shaye J.D.|author2-link=Shaye J. D. Cohen|date=1996a|title=Studies in the Cult of Yahweh: Volume One: Studies in Historical Method, Ancient Israel, Ancient Judaism|url=https://books.google.com/?id=EyfB19u1U8EC&pg=PA233&dq=Plutarch+Yahweh+Dionysus#v=onepage&q=Plutarch%20Yahweh%20Dionysus&f=false|publisher=E. J. Brill|location=Leiden, The Netherlands, New York City, New York, and Cologne, Germany|isbn=978-90-04-10477-8|ref=harv}}
*{{cite book|last1=Smith|first1=Morton|last2=Cohen|first2=Shaye J.D.|date=1996b|title=Studies in the Cult of Yahweh: Volume Two: New Testament, Christianity, and Magic|publisher=E. J. Brill|location=Leiden, The Netherlands, New York City, New York, and Cologne, Germany|isbn=978-90-04-10479-2|pages=242–56|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
|last1 = Sommer
|first1 = Benjamin D.
|chapter = God, names of
|editor1-last = Berlin
|editor1-first = Adele
|editor2-last = Grossman
|editor2-first = Maxine L.
|title = The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|year = 2011
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=hKAaJXvUaUoC&pg=PA299
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780199730049
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Van der Toorn
|first = Karel
|chapter = Ritual Resistance and Self-Assertion
|editor1-last = Platvoet
|editor1-first = Jan. G.
|editor2-last = Van der Toorn
|editor2-first = Karel
|title = Pluralism and Identity: Studies in Ritual Behaviour
|publisher = BRILL
|year = 1995
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=178X5n7zArwC&pg=PA229&dq=%22Ritual+Resistance+and+Self-Assertion%22#v=onepage&q=%22Ritual%20Resistance%20and%20Self-Assertion%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 978-9004103733
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Van der Toorn
|first = Karel
|chapter = Yahweh
|editor1-last = Van der Toorn
|editor1-first = Karel
|editor2-last = Becking
|editor2-first = Bob
|editor3-last = Van der Horst
|editor3-first = Pieter Willem
|title = Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
|publisher = Eerdmans
|year = 1999
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/?id=yCkRz5pfxz0C&pg=PA912&dq=%22If+the+Kenite+hypothesis+is+to+be+maintained%22#v=onepage&q=%22If%20the%20Kenite%20hypothesis%20is%20to%20be%20maintained%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 9780802824912
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Van der Toorn
|first = Karel
|title = Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life
|publisher = BRILL
|year = 1996
|url = https://books.google.com/?id=VSJWkrXfbLQC&pg=PA281&dq=%22Yahweh+was+not+worshipped+in+the+West+Semitic+world%22#v=onepage&q=%22Yahweh%20was%20not%20worshipped%20in%20the%20West%20Semitic%20world%22&f=false
|ref = harv
|isbn = 978-9004104105
}}
* {{citation|author1-last=Vriezen|author1-first=T. C.|author2-last=van der Woude|author2-first=Simon Adam|date=2005|title=Ancient Israelite And Early Jewish Literature|url=https://books.google.com/?id=VeOwyTae71cC&pg=PA18&dq=Ajrud+potsherd+Asherah#v=onepage&q=Ajrud%20potsherd%20Asherah&f=false|translator-last=Doyle|translator-first=Brian|location=Leiden, The Netherlands|publisher=Brill|isbn=978-90-04-12427-1}}
* {{cite book
| last1 = Wright
| first1 = J. Edward
| title = The Early History of Heaven
| year = 2002
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| url = https://books.google.com/?id=lKvMeMorNBEC&pg=PA42&dq=Mesopotamian#v=onepage&q&f=false
| ref = harv
| isbn = 9780195348491
}}
* {{cite book
|last = Wyatt
|first = Nicolas
|chapter = Royal Religion in Ancient Judah
|editor1-last = Stavrakopoulou
|editor1-first = Francesca
|editor2-last = Barton
|editor2-first = John
|title = Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah
|publisher = Continuum International Publishing Group
|year = 2010
|chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=kG_9-vki4ocC&pg=PR5 |isbn=978-0-567-03216-4
|ref = harv
}}
{{refend}}
{{dividir em colunas fim}}
 
== Ligações externas ==
* [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/651183/Yahweh "Yahweh."] ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] Online''.
 
{{Nomes de Deus}}
{{Portal3|Judaísmo|Cristianismo}}
{{Portal3|Judaísmo|Cristianismo|Islã}}
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