Diferenças entre edições de "Étienne Lenoir"

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{{Info/CientistaBiografia/Wikidata
|nome =Étienne Lenoir
|imagem =Etienne_Lenoir_1822-1900.jpg
|data_nascimento ={{dni|lang=br|12|1|1822|si}}
|tamanho =
|local_nascimento =[[Mussy-la-Ville]], [[Luxemburgo]]
|legenda =
|data_morte ={{nowrap|{{morte|lang=br|4|8|1900|12|1|1822}}}}
|nome_nativo =
|local_morte =[[La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire]]
|data_nascimento ={{dni|lang=br|12|1|1822|si}}
|nacionalidade ={{BELb}} [[BélgicaBelgas|Belgabelga]]
|local_nascimento =[[Mussy-la-Ville]], [[Luxemburgo]]
|campo =[[Engenhariaengenharia]]
|data_morte ={{nowrap|{{morte|lang=br|4|8|1900|12|1|1822}}}}
|conhecido_por =[[Ciclo Lenoir]], {{nowrap|[[motor de combustão interna]]}}
|local_morte =[[La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire]]
|causa_morte =
|pais_de_residencia =
|nacionalidade ={{BELb}} [[Bélgica|Belga]]
|etnicidade =
|campo =[[Engenharia]]
|instituicao_trabalho=
|alma_mater =
|tese =
|orientador =
|orientado =
|conhecido_por =[[Ciclo Lenoir]], {{nowrap|[[motor de combustão interna]]}}
|influenciado =
|premio =
|conjuge =
|religiao =
|assinatura =
|notas =
}}
[[Imagem:Lenoir Motor 2.jpg|miniatura|220px|Motor Lenoir no [[Musée des Arts et Métiers]], Paris.]]
[[Imagem:Lenoir gas engine 1860.jpg|miniatura|220px|Motor a gás de Lenoir, 1860]]
'''Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir''', também conhecido como '''Jean J. Lenoir''' ([[Mussy-la-Ville]], {{dtlink|lang=br|12|1|1822}} — [[La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire]], {{dtlink|lang=br|4|8|1900}}) foi um [[Engenharia|engenheiro]] [[BélgicaBelgas|belga]], conhecido por desenvolver o [[motor de combustão interna]] em 1858. Projetos antigos de tais motores foram patenteados tão cedo como 1807, mas nenhum teve sucesso comercial. O motor de Lenoir foi comercializado em quantidades suficientes para ser considerado um sucesso, o primeiro para o motor de combustão interna.
 
 
'''Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir''', também conhecido como '''Jean J. Lenoir''' ([[Mussy-la-Ville]], {{dtlink|lang=br|12|1|1822}} — [[La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire]], {{dtlink|lang=br|4|8|1900}}) foi um [[Engenharia|engenheiro]] [[Bélgica|belga]], conhecido por desenvolver o [[motor de combustão interna]] em 1858. Projetos antigos de tais motores foram patenteados tão cedo como 1807, mas nenhum teve sucesso comercial. O motor de Lenoir foi comercializado em quantidades suficientes para ser considerado um sucesso, o primeiro para o motor de combustão interna.
 
{{Tradução de||en|Étienne Lenoir}}
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He was born in [[Mussy-la-Ville]] (then in [[Luxembourg]], part of the [[Belgium|Belgian]] [[Luxembourg (Belgium)|Province of Luxembourg]] since 1839). By the early 1850s he had emigrated to France, taking up residence in [[Paris]], where he developed an interest in [[electroplating]]. His interest in the subject led him to make electrical inventions including an improved [[electric telegraph]].
 
==Lenoir engine==
By 1859, Lenoir's experimentation without electricity led him to develop the first single-cylinder [[two-stroke engine]] which burnt a mixture of [[coal gas]] and [[air]] ignited by a "jumping spark" [[ignition system]] by [[Induction coil|Ruhmkorff coil]],{{r|Georgano, p.9}} and which he patented in 1860. The engine differed from more modern two-stroke engines in that the charge was not compressed before ignition (a system invented in 1801 by [[Lebon D'Humberstein]], which was quiet but inefficient),{{r|Wise, p.1181}} with [[double-acting cylinder|a power stroke at each end of the cylinder]].{{r|Wise, p.1182}} In 1863 the [[Hippomobile (car)|Hippomobile]] with a [[hydrogen gas]] fuelled one cylinder internal combustion engine made a test drive from [[Paris]] to [[Joinville-le-Pont]]: top speed about 9&nbsp;km in ~3 hours.{{r|Hippo}}
 
Lenoir was an engineer at [[petiene et Cie]], who formed companies (''[[Société des Moteurs Lenoir+ more]]'') in Paris in 1859,{{r|Wise, p.1181}} with a capitalization of two million [[French franc|''franc'']]s and a factory in the ''Rue de la Roquette'',{{r|Wise, p.1181}} to develop the engine, and a three-wheeled carriage constructed using it. Although it ran reasonably well, the engine was fuel inefficient, extremely noisy, tended to overheat and, if sufficient cooling water was not applied, seize up. Nevertheless, ''[[Scientific American]]'' advised in September 1860 the Parisian newspaper ''Cosmos'' had pronounced the steam age over,{{r|SciAmer}} and by 1865, 143 had been sold in Paris alone, and production by Reading Gas Works for Lenoir Gas Engines in [[London, England|London]] had begun.{{r|Georgano, p.9}}
 
In 1863 Lenoir demonstrated a second three-wheeled carriage, little more than a wagon body set atop a tricycle platform.{{r|Wise, p.1181}} It was powered by a 2543 cc (155 in<sup>3</sup>; 180×100&nbsp;mm, 7.1×3.9in){{r|Georgano, p.9}} 1.5&nbsp;hp "liquid hydrocarbon" ([[petroleum]]) engine with a primitive [[carburettor]] which was patented in 1886.<ref>{{ cite patent | country = US | number = 345596| status = patent| title = Gas Engine| gdate = 1886-07-13 | fdate = 1886-01-06 | inventor = Etienne Jean Joseph Lenoir}}</ref> It successfully covered the 11&nbsp;km (7&nbsp;mi) from Paris to [[Joinville-le-Pont]] and back in about ninety minutes each way, an average speed less than that of a walking man (though doubtless there were breakdowns).{{r|Georgano, p.9}} This succeeded in attracting the attention of ''[[tsar]]'' [[Alexander II of Russia|Alexander II]], and one was sent to Russia, where it vanished. (Lenoir himself was not pleased, however; in 1863, he sold his patents to ''[[Compagnie Parisienne du Gaz]]'' and turned to [[motorboat]]s, instead, building a naptha-fuelled four-cycle in 1888.){{r|Wise, p.1181}}{{r|Georgano, p.9}}
 
Most applications of the Lenoir engine were as a stationary power plant powering printing presses, water pumps, and machine tools. They "proved to be rough and noisy after prolonged use",{{r|Georgano, p.9}} however. Other engineers, especially [[Nikolaus Otto]], began making improvements in internal combustion technology which soon rendered the Lenoir design obsolete. Less than 500 Lenoir engines of between 6 and 20&nbsp;hp were built, including some under licence in Germany.{{r|Wise, p.1181}}
 
==Later years==
Granted French citizenship 1870 for assistance during the [[Franco-Prussian War]], and awarded the ''[[Légion d'honneur]]'' in 1881 (not for the engine, but for developments in [[telegraph]]y), Lenoir's later years were impoverished despite his engine's success.{{r|Wise, p.1182}}
 
Lenoir died in at La Varenne-Sainte-Hilaire on August 4, 1900.{{r|Wise, p.1182}}
 
==See also==
*[[Lenoir cycle]]
*[[History of the internal combustion engine]]
*[[Timeline of hydrogen technologies]]
 
==References==
{{reflist|refs=
 
<ref name="Georgano, p.9">[[Georgano, G.N.]] ''Cars: Early and Vintage 1886-1930'' (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), p.9.</ref>
 
.<ref name="Hippo">[http://www.netinform.net/H2/H2Mobility/H2MobilityMain.aspx?ID=229&CATID=1 Hippomobile]</ref>
 
<ref name="SciAmer">{{Cite news
| publication-date=1860-09-22
| title=
| periodical=Scientific American
| publisher=
| volume=
| issue=
| pages=p193
| postscript=.
}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Wise, p.1181">Wise, David Burgess, "Lenoir: The Motoring Pioneer" in Ward, Ian, executive editor. ''The World of Automobiles'' (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), p.1181.</ref>
 
<ref name="Wise, p.1182">Wise, David Burgess, "Lenoir: The Motoring Pioneer" in Ward, Ian, executive editor. ''The World of Automobiles'' (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), p.1182.</ref>
 
}}
-->
 
===Fontes===
{{Esboço-engenheiro}}
 
{{Controle de autoridade}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Lenoir, Etienne}}