Diferenças entre edições de "Panthera leo melanochaita"

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O '''leão-do-cabo''' (''panthera leo melanochaita'') foi uma população de [[Panthera leo krugeri|leão do sul e leste africano]] que habitava o sul da [[África do Sul]], mais especificamente as [[Províncias da África do Sul|províncias]] de [[Cabo da Boa Esperança|Cabo]] e [[KwaZulu-Natal|Natal]]. Foi extinto em meados do século 19. Estudos recentes afirmam que o leão-do-cabo era apenas uma população pertencente à subespécie [[Panthera leo krugeri|''Panthera leo kruger''i]] e não uma subespécie separada como anteriormente havia se pensado.<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2018-10-02|titulo=Cape lion|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_lion&oldid=862104978|jornal=Wikipedia|lingua=en}}</ref>
{{DEFAULTSORT:Leao-Do-Cabo}}
[[Categoria:Leões]]
[[Categoria:Mamíferos extintos da África do Sul]]
[[Categoria:Mamíferos descritos em 1842]]
The '''Cape lion''' was a ''[[:en:Panthera_leo_melanochaita|Panthera leo melanochaita]]'' [[:en:Population|population]] in [[:en:South_Africa|South Africa]]'s [[:en:Natal_Province|Natal]] and [[:en:Cape_Province|Cape Provinces]] that was [[:en:Locally_extinct|extirpated]] in the mid-19th century.<ref name="Mazak1975">{{cite journal |author=Mazak, V. |year=1975 |title=Notes on the Black-maned Lion of the Cape, ''Panthera leo melanochaita'' (Ch. H. Smith, 1842) and a Revised List of the Preserved Specimens |journal=Verhandelingen Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen |issue=64 |pages=1–44 |isbn=0-7204-8289-5}}</ref><ref name="iucn">{{cite iucn|author1=Bauer, H.|author2=Packer, C.|author3=Funston, P.F.|author4=Henschel, P.|author5=Nowell, K.|name-list-style=amp|year=2015|url=https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/15951/115130419|title=Panthera leo|ref=harv}}</ref> The [[:en:Type_specimen|type specimen]] originated at the [[:en:Cape_of_Good_Hope|Cape of Good Hope]] and was described in 1842.<ref name="Jardine1842">{{cite book|title=The Naturalist's Library|author=Smith, C.H.|volume=15. Mammalia|chapter=Black maned lion ''Leo melanochaita''|year=1842|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/naturalistslibra15jardrich#page/176/mode/2up|page=Plate X, 177|editor1-last=Jardine|editor1-first=W.|location=London|publisher=Chatto and Windus}}</ref>
 
== Características ==
Until 2017,<ref name="catsg">{{cite journal |author1=Kitchener, A. C. |author16=Sanderson, J. |issn=1027-2992 |issue=Special Issue 11 |journal=Cat News |title=A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group |year=2017 |author23=Tobe, S. |author22=Timmons, Z. |author21=Nowell, K. |author20=Hoffmann, M. |author19=Groves, C. |author18=Bruford, M. |author17=Seymour, K. |author15=O’Donoghue, P. |author2=Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. |author14=Meijaard, E. |author13=Luo, S.-J. |author12=Johnson, W. |author11=Duckworth, J. W. |author10=Driscoll, C. |author9=Christiansen, P. |author8=Abramov, A. V. |author7=Yamaguchi, N. |author6=Wilting, A. |author5=Werdelin, L. |author4=Gentry, A. |author3=Eizirik, E. |url=https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/32616/A_revised_Felidae_Taxonomy_CatNews.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y#page=71}}</ref> the Cape lion was considered a distinct lion [[:en:Subspecies|subspecies]].<ref name="MSW3">{{MSW3 Carnivora|id=14000228|page=546|heading=''Panthera leo''}}</ref><ref name="CAP">{{Cite book|title=Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan|last=Nowell|first=K.|last2=Jackson|first2=P.|chapter=''Panthera leo''|isbn=978-2-8317-0045-8|chapter-url=http://carnivoractionplans1.free.fr/wildcats.pdf|year=1996|publisher=IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group|location=Gland, Switzerland|pages=17–21, 37–41}}</ref> [[:en:Phylogeography|Phylogeographic analysis]] showed that lion populations in [[:en:Southern_Africa|Southern]] and [[:en:East_Africa|East Africa]] are closely related.<ref name="Yamaguchi2000">{{cite journal |last=Yamaguchi |first=N. |year=2000 |url=http://www.tigertouch.org/documents/barbarycape.pdf |title=The Barbary lion and the Cape lion: their phylogenetic places and conservation |publisher=African Lion Working Group News |volume=1 |pages=9–11 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190818182028/http://www.tigertouch.org/documents/barbarycape.pdf |archivedate=2019-08-18}}</ref><ref name="Barnett2006">{{cite journal |author1=Barnett, R. |author2=Yamaguchi, N. |author3=Barnes, I. |author4=Cooper, A. |year=2006 |url=http://abc.zoo.ox.ac.uk/Papers/consgen06_lion.pdf |title=Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion ''Panthera leo'': Implications for its ex situ conservation |journal=Conservation Genetics |volume=7 |issue=4 |pages=507–514 |doi=10.1007/s10592-005-9062-0 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060824064412/http://abc.zoo.ox.ac.uk/Papers/consgen06_lion.pdf |archivedate=2006-08-24}}</ref> In 2017, lion populations in Southern and East Africa were subsumed to ''Panthera leo melanochaita''.<ref name="catsg" />
O leão do cabo foi descrito como sendo muito grande, com orelhas de bordas pretas e uma grande juba preta estendendo-se além dos ombros e sob a barriga. Crânios de dois exemplares do [[museu britânico de história natural]] recuperados na bacia do [[rio Orange]] eram mais curtos na região [[Osso occipital|occipital]] do que outros leões da África do sul e com tendência a desenvolver um segundo [[pré-molar]].<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2018-10-02|titulo=Cape lion|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_lion&oldid=862104978|jornal=Wikipedia|lingua=en}}</ref>
[[Ficheiro:Brehms Het Leven der Dieren Zoogdieren Orde 4 Leeuw (Felis leo capensis).jpg|esquerda|miniaturadaimagem|Representação artística de dois leões do cabo publicado em 1927.]]
Um zoólogo americano descreveu o crânio do leão do cabo como sendo maior que o dos leões equatoriais em pelo menos 25 mm em média, apesar de comparativamente mais estreito. Ele considerou que o leão do cabo era <nowiki>''distintivamente''</nowiki> maior que o [[Leão-asiático|leão asiático]] ou outros leões da África. Espécimes de 272 kg foram relatados ao sul do [[rio Vaal]].<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2018-10-02|titulo=Cape lion|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_lion&oldid=862104978|jornal=Wikipedia|lingua=en}}</ref>
 
O resultado de um estudo de longo prazo indica que a cor das jubas dos leões é influenciada por varáveis climáticas e varia entres os indivíduos. Jubas mais escuras e mais longas são comuns em estações frias.<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2018-10-02|titulo=Cape lion|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_lion&oldid=862104978|jornal=Wikipedia|lingua=en}}</ref>
== Taxonomy ==
[[File:Brehms_Het_Leven_der_Dieren_Zoogdieren_Orde_4_Leeuw_(Felis_leo_capensis).jpg|ligação=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brehms_Het_Leven_der_Dieren_Zoogdieren_Orde_4_Leeuw_(Felis_leo_capensis).jpg|miniaturadaimagem|Drawing titled 'Kaapsche Leeuw en Leeuwin (''Felis leo capensis'')', published in ''[[:en:Brehms_Tierleben|Brehms Tierleben]]'', 1927]]
''Felis (Leo) melanochaita'' was a black-maned lion [[:en:Zoological_specimen|specimen]] from the [[:en:Cape_of_Good_Hope|Cape of Good Hope]] that was described by [[:en:Charles_Hamilton_Smith|Ch. H. Smith]] in 1842.<ref name="Jardine1842" /><ref name="MSW3" /> In the 19th century, naturalists and hunters recognised it as a distinct [[:en:Subspecies|subspecies]] because of this dark mane colour.<ref name="Mazak1975" /> In the 20th century, some authors supported this view of the Cape lion being a distinct subspecies.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Lundholm, B. |year=1952 |title=A skull of a Cape lioness (''Felis leo melanochaita'' H. Smith |journal=Annals of the Transvaal Museum |issue=32 |pages=21–24}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Stevenson-Hamilton, J. |year=1954 |title=Specimen of the extinct Cape lion |journal=African Wildlife |issue=8 |pages=187–189}}</ref> [[:en:Vratislav_Mazák|Vratislav Mazák]] hypothesized that it evolved geographically isolated from other populations by the [[:en:Great_Escarpment,_Southern_Africa|Great Escarpment]].<ref name="Mazak1975" />
 
== Extinção ==
This theory was questioned in the early 21st century. Genetic exchanges between lion populations in the Cape, [[:en:Kalahari|Kalahari]] and [[:en:Transvaal_Province|Transvaal]] regions, and farther east are considered having been possible through a corridor between the escarpment and the [[:en:Indian_ocean|Indian ocean]].<ref name="Yamaguchi2000" /> Results of [[:en:Phylogeographic|phylogeographic]] studies support this notion of lions in Namibia, Botswana and South Africa being genetically close.<ref name="Antunes2008">{{Cite journal |author=Antunes, A. |journal=PLoS Genetics |pmc=2572142 |pmid=18989457 |year=2008 |pages=e1000251 |issue=11 |volume=4 |title=The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion ''Panthera leo'' Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics |author2=Troyer, J. L. |author8=Johnson, W. E. |author7=Winterbach, H. |author6=Winterbach, C. |author5=Packer, C. |author4=Pecon-Slattery, J. |author3=Roelke, M. E. |doi=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000251}}</ref><ref name="Bertola2011">{{Cite journal |last1=Bertola |last14=De Iongh |last11=Van Haeringen |first11=W. A. |last12=Sogbohossou |first12=E. |last13=Tumenta |first13=P. N. |first14=H. H. |last10=Leirs |year=2011 |title=Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (''Panthera leo'') in West and Central Africa |journal=Journal of Biogeography |volume=38 |issue=7 |pages=1356–1367 |first10=H. |first2=W. F. |first1=L. D. |last6=Bauer |last3=Vrieling |first3=K. |last4=Uit De Weerd |first4=D. R. |last5=York |first5=D. S. |first6=H. |last2=Van Hooft |last7=Prins |first7=H. H. T. |last8=Funston |first8=P. J. |last9=Udo De Haes |first9=H. A. |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02500.x}}</ref> Based on the analysis of 357 lion samples from 10 countries, it is thought that lions migrated from Southern to East Africa during the [[:en:Pleistocene|Pleistocene]] and [[:en:Holocene|Holocene]].<ref name="Antunes2008" /> Analysis of 194 lion samples from 22 different countries suggest that populations in Southern and East Africa are distinct from populations in [[:en:West_Africa|West]] and [[:en:North_Africa|North Africa]] and [[:en:Asia|Asia]].<ref name="Bertola2011" /> In 2017, lion populations in Southern and East Africa were subsumed under ''P. l. melanochaita''.<ref name="catsg" />
A partir de meados do século XVII, chegaram os primeiros colonos na África do Sul, vindo de países como [[Países Baixos|Holanda]], [[França]], [[Alemanha]], [[Escócia]] e [[Dinamarca]]. Nesta época os leões atacavam praticamente qualquer coisa, fosse uma zebra, um antílope ou mesmo uma foca descansando na praia. Junto com os colonizadores vieram os animais domésticos, que, em relação a suas presas tradicionais, eram mais fáceis de serem abatidas.
 
Os relatos da época falam muito de ataques de grandes leões contra os assentamentos [[bôeres|boeres]].
=== Zoological specimens ===
A few [[:en:Natural_history_museum|natural history museums]] keep Cape lion [[:en:Zoological_specimen|specimens]] in their collections:
 
[[Jan van Riebeeck]], fundador da [[Cidade do Cabo]] em [[1652]], teve de construir o Castelo da Boa Esperança precisamente para evitar seus ataques. A partir de [[1666]], a primitiva estrutura de madeira começou a ser substituída por outra de pedra que tornasse a sua defesa mais eficaz.
* the [[:en:Transvaal_Museum|Transvaal Museum]] has a female Cape lion skull;<ref>{{cite journal |author=Lundholm, B. |year=1952 |title=A skull of a Cape Lioness (''Felis leo melanochaitus'' H. Smith) |journal=Annale van die Transvaal Museum |volume=22 |issue=1 |pages=21−24}}</ref>
* the [[:en:Rijksmuseum_van_Natuurlijke_Historie|Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]] has two Cape lion skulls;<ref name="Mazak1960">{{cite journal |author=Mazak, V. and Husson. A.M. |year=1960 |title=Einige Bemerkungen über den Kaplöwen, ''Panthera leo melanochaitus'' (Ch. H. Smith, 1842) |journal=Zoologische Mededelingen |volume=37 |issue=7 |pages=101−111}}</ref>
* the [[:en:Natural_History_Museum,_London|Natural History Museum, London]] and the [[:en:Paris_Museum_of_Natural_History|Paris Museum of Natural History]] each have a mounted Cape lion;<ref name="Mazak1960" />
* the [[:en:Swedish_Museum_of_Natural_History|Swedish Museum of Natural History]] has a Cape lion skull, and the [[:en:Zoological_Museum_Amsterdam|Zoological Museum Amsterdam]] a mounted specimen.<ref name="Mazak1975" /><!--origin of mounted lion in [[Museum Wiesbaden]] 1864 is unclear, see http://www.mwnh.de/samm010.html; specimens in [[State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart]] are from the Kalahari dating 1902, see http://www.mwnh.de/samm011.html-->
* [[:en:Clifton_Park_Museum|Clifton Park Museum]] in [[:en:Rotherham|Rotherham]] has a stuffed Cape lion.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}
* The ''African Museum of Dr. [[:en:Emil_Holub|Emil Holub]]'' <small>([[:cs:Africké muzeum Dr. Emila Holuba|cz]])</small> in [[:en:Holice_(Pardubice_District)|Holice]], [[:en:Czech_Republic|Czech Republic]] has a two year old stuffed specimen, bought as a small cub in 1876. It was identified as a Cape lion in 2009.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.holubovomuzeum.cz/lev-princ |title=Lev Princ |publisher=Museum of Emil Holub |language=cs |access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.novinky.cz/domaci/169450-v-muzeu-emila-holuba-se-ukryval-kapsky-lev.html |title=V muzeu Emila Holuba se ukrýval kapský lev (Museum of Emil Holub was hiding a Cape lion) |date=May 22, 2009 |language=cs |newspaper=Novinky.cz |access-date=10 November 2019}}</ref>
 
A caça, tanto por desporto como para proteger as propriedades e rebanhos dos colonizadores, foi reduzindo aos poucos a distribuição desta população. O último leão da província do Cabo foi abatido em [[1858]], e em [[1865]] o general Bisset matou o último indivíduo desta subespécie em [[KwaZulu-Natal|Natal]]. Alguns museus europeus hoje em dia ainda possuem exemplares dessa população embalsamados.
== Characteristics ==
The type specimen of the Cape lion was described as very large with black-edged ears and a black mane extending beyond the shoulders and under the belly.<ref name="Jardine1842" /> Skulls of two lion specimen in the [[:en:British_Natural_History_Museum|British Natural History Museum]] from the Orange River basin were described as a little shorter in the [[:en:Occipital|occipital]] regions than other lions in South Africa and with a tendency to develop the second lower [[:en:Premolar|premolar]].<ref name="Mazak1975" />
 
== Remanescentes ==
[[:en:America|American]] [[:en:Zoologist|zoologist]] [[:en:Edmund_Heller|Edmund Heller]] described the Cape lion's skull as longer than those of [[:en:Equator|equatorial]] lions, by at least {{convert|1.0|in|mm|abbr=on}} on average, despite being comparatively narrow. He considered the Cape lion to have been 'distinctly' bigger than other lions in [[:en:Africa|Africa]].<ref name="Heller">Heller, E. (1913). [https://archive.org/stream/smithsonianmisce611914smit#page/n579/mode/2up ''New races of carnivores and baboons from equatorial Africa and Abyssinia''] Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 61(19): 1–12.</ref> Lions approaching {{convert|272|kg|lb|abbr=on}} were shot south of the [[:en:Vaal_River|Vaal River]].<ref name="Pease1913">Pease, A. E. (1913). [https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/n5/mode/2up ''The Book of the Lion''] John Murray, London.</ref> 19th century authors claimed that the Cape lion was bigger than the [[:en:Asiatic_lion|Asiatic lion]].<ref>{{cite book|title=Encyclopædia Americana. A popular dictionary|volume=Volume VIII|chapter=Lion (felis leo)|editor2=[[Edward Wigglesworth (1804–1876)|Wigglesworth, E.]]|editor3=[[Thomas Gamaliel Bradford|Bradford, T. G.]]|editor1=[[Francis Lieber|Lieber, F.]]|page=5−7|location=Philadelphia|publisher=Blanchard and Lea|chapterurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=sdFAAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q&f=false|year=1857|edition=New}}</ref>
Durante 30 anos o sul-africano John Spence buscou possíveis descendentes de leões-do-cabo, que teriam sido levados à Europa e mantidos em cativeiro antes de serem extintos na natureza. Finalmente, em 2001 acreditou ter encontrado uma pequena família de leões que vivia no jardim zoológico de [[Novosibirsk]], na [[Sibéria]]. Não se sabe qual a origem exata de tais leões, pois chegaram ao zoológico abandonados por um [[circo]]. Graças aos esforços de Spence, dois filhotes deste grupo (inusitadamente grandes para sua idade, inclusive comparados com outros do mesmo circo) foram enviados ao Tygerberg Zoo da Cidade do Cabo. Estudos posteriores de [[DNA]] determinaram que se tratava efetivamente dos últimos leões-do-cabo sobre a terra, ou pelo menos descendentes seus que se miscigenaram com outras subespécies de leão.
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Leao-Do-Cabo}}
Results of a long-term study indicate that the colour of lion manes is influenced by climatic variables and varies between individuals. Manes are darker and longer in cool seasons.<ref>{{cite journal |author1=West P.M. |author2=Packer C. |doi=10.1126/science.1073257 |title=Sexual Selection, Temperature, and the Lion's Mane |year=2002 |journal=Science |volume=297 |issue=5585 |pages=1339–1343 |pmid=12193785 |bibcode=2002Sci...297.1339W}}</ref>
[[Categoria:Leões]]
 
[[Categoria:Mamíferos extintos da África do Sul]]
== Distribution and habitat ==
[[Categoria:Mamíferos descritos em 1842]]
[[File:Bodleian_Libraries,_Handbill_of_Merchant's_Hall,_1739,_announcing_A_lion,_lionesses,_tigers,_etc..jpg|ligação=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bodleian_Libraries,_Handbill_of_Merchant's_Hall,_1739,_announcing_A_lion,_lionesses,_tigers,_etc..jpg|miniaturadaimagem|A 1739 advertisement by [[:en:Charles_Benjamin_Incledon_(advertiser)|Charles Benjamin Incledon]] featuring a [[:en:Mesopotamian_lion|Mesopotamian lion]] from the vicinity of [[:en:Bassorah|Bassorah]], Cape lion, [[:en:Tiger|tiger]] from the [[:en:East_Indies|East Indies]], [[:en:Jaguar|panther]] from [[:en:Buenos_Aires|Buenos Aires]], ''[[:en:Hyaena_hyaena|Hyaena hyaena]]'' from [[:en:West_Africa|West Africa]], and [[:en:Leopard|leopard]] from [[:en:Turkey|Turkey]], besides a "[[:en:Lampago|Man tyger]]" from [[:en:Africa|Africa]]]]
In the early 19th century, lions still occurred in the [[:en:Karoo|Karoo]] plains and in the [[:en:Northern_Cape|Northern Cape]]. In 1844, lions were sighted south of the [[:en:Riet_River|Riet River]]. The last lions south of the [[:en:Orange_River|Orange River]] were sighted between 1850 and 1858. In the northern [[:en:Orange_Free_State|Orange Free State]], lions may have survived into the 1860s.<ref name="Mazak1975" />
 
In 2003, six lions from [[:en:Kgalagadi_Transfrontier_Park|Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park]] were relocated to [[:en:Addo_Elephant_National_Park|Addo Elephant National Park]] in the [[:en:Eastern_Cape_Province|Eastern Cape Province]].<ref>{{cite journal |author1=Hayward, M.W. |author2=Hayward, G.J. |year=2007 |title=Activity patterns of reintroduced lion ''Panthera leo'' and spotted hyaena ''Crocuta crocuta'' in the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa |journal=African Journal of Ecology |volume=45 |issue=2 |pages=135−141 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00686.x}}</ref>
 
== In captivity ==
In 2000, specimens asserted to be descendants of the Cape lion were found in captivity in [[:en:Russia|Russia]], and two of them were brought to [[:en:South_Africa|South Africa]]. South African zoo director John Spence reportedly was long fascinated by stories of these grand lions scaling the walls of [[:en:Jan_van_Riebeeck|Jan van Riebeeck]]'s [[:en:Fort_de_Goede_Hoop|castle]] in the 17th century. He studied van Riebeeck's journals to discern the Cape lion's features, which included a long black mane, black in their ears, and reportedly a larger size. He believed that some Cape lions might have been taken to Europe and interbred with other lions. His 30-year search led to his discovery of black-maned lions with features of the Cape lion at the [[:en:Novosibirsk_Zoo|Novosibirsk Zoo]] in [[:en:Siberia|Siberia]], in 2000.<ref name="BBC">{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/monitoring/media_reports/1007452.stm |title='Extinct' lions (Cape lion) surface in Siberia |date=2000 |work=The [[BBC News|BBC]] |access-date=2012-12-31}}</ref><ref name="sibzoo">{{cite web |url=http://sibzoo.narod.ru/animal/lev.htm |title=Лев |accessdate=January 28, 2010 |publisher=Sibzoo.narod.ru |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090329050732/http://www.sibzoo.narod.ru/animal/lev.htm |archivedate=March 29, 2009 |url-status=dead}}</ref> Besides having a black mane, the specimen that attracted Spence had a "wide face and sturdy legs." Novosibirsk Zoo's population, which had 40 cubs over a 30-year period, continues, and Spence, aided by a [[:en:Tiergarten_Schönbrunn|zoo]] in [[:en:Vienna|Vienna]], was allowed to bring two cubs back to [[:en:Tygerberg_Zoo|Tygerberg Zoo]]. Back in South Africa, Spence explained that he hoped to breed lions that at least looked like Cape lions, and to have [[:en:DNA_test|DNA testing]] done to establish whether or not the cubs were descendants of the original Cape lion.<ref name="aparchive">{{cite web |url=http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/SOUTH-AFRICA-LION-CUBS-THOUGHT-TO-BE-CAPE-LIONS/6f868f73b9fd62e43f31a152f6d011cc |title=South Africa: Lion Cubs Thought to Be Cape Lions |date=2000 |publisher=AP Archive, The [[Associated Press]]}} (with 2-minute video of cubs at zoo with John Spence, 3 sound-bites, and 15 photos)</ref> However, Spence died in 2010 and the zoo closed in 2012, with the lions expected to go to [[:en:Drakenstein_Lion_Park|Drakenstein Lion Park]].<ref name="lostzoo">{{cite news |url=http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2012-06-04-we-lost-a-zoo-western-capes-only-zoo-closes/#.VRmvpY7F8hY |title=We lost a zoo: Western Cape's only zoo closes |date=2012 |accessdate=2015-03-30 |author=Davis, R. |newspaper=[[Daily Maverick]]}}</ref>
 
== See also ==
 
== Referências ==
* Lion populations: [[:en:West_African_lion|West African lion]] {{·}} [[:en:Central_African_lion|Central African lion]] {{·}} Asiatic lion {{·}} [[:en:East_African_lion|East African lion]] {{·}} [[:en:Southern_African_lion|Southern African lion]] {{·}} [[:en:Barbary_lion|Barbary lion]] {{·}} Cape lion {{·}} [[:en:History_of_lions_in_Europe|Lions in Europe]] {{·}} [[:en:American_lion|American lion]]
* Wild cats in Africa: [[:en:African_leopard|African leopard]] {{·}} [[:en:African_golden_cat|African golden cat]] {{·}} [[:en:Caracal|Caracal]] {{·}} [[:en:Serval|Serval]] {{·}} [[:en:African_wildcat|African wildcat]] {{·}} [[:en:Sand_cat|Sand cat]] {{·}} [[:en:Cheetah|Cheetah]] {{·}} [[:en:Black-footed_cat|Black-footed cat]]
{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
* [[Wildlife of South Africa]]
* ''[[Panthera leo fossilis]]''
* ''[[Panthera spelaea]]''
* [[Big cat]]
* [[Tiger versus lion]]
{{div col end}}{{Commons category|Panthera leo melanochaita}}
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