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'''Julius Hirsch''' ({{dni|7|4|1892|si}} – declarado morto em 8 de maio de 1945) foi um futebolista [[Seleção Alemã de Futebol|internacional]] olímpico judeu alemão que foi morto pelos [[Nazismo|nazistas]] no [[Auschwitz|campo de concentração de Auschwitz]] durante o [[holocausto]].<ref>{{cite news |first=Jack |last=Bell |title=German Federation Admits to Nazi Past |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/20/sports/soccer/20soccer.html |work=[[The New York Times]] |date=20 de setembro de 2005 |access-date=27 de novembro de 2021}}</ref><ref name="Schaffer">{{cite book|last1=Schaffer|first1=Kay |last2=Smith|first2=Sidonie |title=The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nMzYdZpk8qMC&q=holocaust+%22After+the+games%22&pg=PA61|year=2000|publisher=[[Rutgers University Press]]|isbn=978-0-8135-2820-5|pages=60–62}}</ref> Ajudou o [[Karlsruher Fussball Verein]] a ganhar o campeonato alemão de futebol de 1910. Jogou pela [[Seleção Alemã de Futebol]], inclusive nos [[Futebol nos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1912|Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1912]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.olympedia.org/athletes/25421 |title=Julius Hirsch |work=Olympedia |access-date=27 de novembro de 2021}}</ref> Ele então se juntou ao [[Spielvereinigung Greuther Fürth]], com quem ganhou o campeonato alemão de futebol em 1914.
 
==Biografia==
Hirsch nasceu em [[Achern]], Alemanha (e mais tarde viveu em [[Karlsruhe]]),<ref name="auto2">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9XQTAQAAIAAJ|title=Julius "Juller" Hirsch 1892 Aachen-1943 Auschwitz: deutscher Fussballnationalspieler|first=Swantje|last=Schollmeyer|date=2007|publisher=Hentrich & Hentrich|isbn=9783938485330|via=Google Books}}</ref> era [[Judeus|judeu]],<ref name="auto"/> o sétimo filho de um comerciante judeu. Ingressou no [[Karlsruher Fussball Verein|Karlsruher FV]] com dez anos de idade.
 
[[Imagem:Karlsruher FV 1910.jpg|miniatura|280px|[[Karlsruher FV]] em 1910, com Hirsch embaixo à direita.]]
Junto com [[Fritz Förderer]] e [[Gottfried Fuchs]], Hirsch formou um trio de ataque.<ref name="auto">Kevin E. Simpson (2016). [https://www.google.com/books/edition/Soccer_under_the_Swastika/9_7lDAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=Julius+Hirsch+%22jewish%22&pg=PR20&printsec=frontcover ''Soccer Under the Swastika; Stories of Survival and Resistance During the Holocaust'']</ref> Apelidado de "Juller", era um [[meio-campo]]/[[Atacante (futebol)|atacante]] dinâmico, mais conhecido por seu estilo de ataque, seu chute forte e poderoso pé esquerdo.<ref name="auto"/><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=g8xSmwEACAAJ|title="Gotti" and "Juller": Gottfried Fuchs/Godfrey E. Fochs and Julius Hirsch; international soccer players, friends and Jews; [special print in occasion of the 2nd Fuchs Family Reunion Canada 2012]|first=Werner|last=Skrentny|date= 2012|publisher=Verlag Die Werkstatt|via=Google Books}}</ref><ref name="auto4">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tUoTDQAAQBAJ&q=%22Julius+Hirsch%22+%22iron+cross%22&pg=PT623|title=Who Betrayed the Jews?: The Realities of Nazi Persecution in the Holocaust|first=Agnes|last=Grunwald-Spier|date= 2016|publisher=The History Press|isbn=9780750958011|via=Google Books}}</ref> Ajudou o [[Karlsruher Fussball Verein|Karlsruher FV]] a ganhar o campeonato alemão de futebol de 1910.<ref name="auto"/>
 
Depois de ingressar no [[Spielvereinigung Greuther Fürth|SpVgg Fürth]] em 1913, ganhou o campeonato alemão de futebol de 1914 com eles no ano seguinte.<ref name="auto"/><ref name=david>{{Cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2019/may/06/remembering-the-cream-of-jewish-footballing-talent-killed-in-the-holocaust|title=Remembering the cream of Jewish footballing talent killed in the Holocaust|date=6 de maio de 2019|website=The Guardian|author=David Bolchover}}</ref>
 
Hirsch foi o primeiro jogador judeu a representar a [[Seleção Alemã de Futebol]], na qual ingressou aos 18 anos de idade em 1911. <ref name="auto"/><ref name="auto1">{{Cite web|url=https://insidefutbol.com/2011/04/14/the-war-generation-julius-hirsch/40456/|title=The War Generation – Julius Hirsch|date=14 April 2011|work=Inside Futbol}}</ref> Jogou em uma série de partidas pela Alemanha, incluindo os [[Futebol nos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1912|Jogos Olímpicos de 1912]] em [[Estocolmo]], Suécia.<ref name="auto1"/> Hirsch marcou quatro gols pela Alemanha contra a Holanda em 1912, tornando-se o primeiro alemão a marcar quatro gols em uma única partida.<ref name="auto"/><ref name=david/>
 
Hirsch se alistou e serviu por quatro anos no [[Exército Imperial Alemão]] na [[Primeira Guerra Mundial]] e foi condecorado com a [[Cruz de Ferro]].<ref name="auto1"/><ref>[https://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/sport/sportgeschichte/2008/4/7/news-35781547/detail.html Nationalspieler und Opfer des Nationalsozialismus] {{in lang|de}} ''Der Westen'', Published: 7 April 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2009</ref> Seu irmão Leopold foi morto em combate em 1916, também lutando pelo exército alemão.<ref name="Olymp"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.macleans.ca/history/the-german-soccer-hero-who-escaped-the-nazis-for-canada/|title=The German soccer hero who escaped the Nazis for Canada|website=Macleans|author=Michael Coren|date= 13 January 2020}}</ref>
 
Voltou para o ''KFV'' após a Primeira Guerra Mundial e se aposentou em 1925.<ref name="auto1"/> No entanto, permaneceu no clube como treinador de jovens.<ref name="Olymp">[https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501069 Deutscher Meister, Nationalspieler, Olympionike] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701022614/https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501069 |date= 1 July 2012 }} {{in lang|de}} ''DFB'' website. Retrieved 25 June 2012</ref>
 
==Morto pela Alemanha nazista==
 
 
Reading in a newspaper on 10 April 1933 that all [[Southern German]] clubs would ban Jewish members, Hirsch left ''KFV'' by his own choice after over 30 years as a member. In a letter to his club he requested that it should not be forgotten that, even though Jews were now the whipping boys of the nation, many of them had given their life blood for the German nation and were true patriots, as shown by their deeds and words.<ref name="Olymp"/> In 1942 he divorced his non-Jewish wife in an effort to save her and their children from the [[Nazi]]s.<ref name="auto2"/>
 
Hirsch was deported from [[Karlsruhe]], Germany, to [[Auschwitz concentration camp]] on 1 March 1943.<ref name="auto"/><ref>[http://db.yadvashem.org/deportation/transportDetails.html?language=en&itemId=9439366?WT.mc_id=wiki Transports to Extinction], The International Institute for Holocaust Research, [[Yad Vashem]]. Retrieved 2 March 2014</ref> He had not believed that the government would harm him, as he had fought for Germany in World War I and played for Germany's national football team.<ref name="auto"/> His exact date of death is unknown. In 1950, a German court declared him dead with the date of death set on 8 May 1945, past his 53rd birthday and after the camp's liberation by the [[Red Army]] in January that year.<ref name="jewsinsports">{{cite web|url=http://www.jewsinsports.org/profile.asp?sport=soccer&ID=102|title=Hirsch, Julius|access-date=27 March 2009|publisher=Jews in Sports}}</ref><ref name="WWII">{{cite web |url=https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/friv/lists.cgi?id=65 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200417055433/https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/friv/lists.cgi?id=65 |url-status=dead |archive-date=17 April 2020 |title=Olympians Who Were Killed or Missing in Action or Died as a Result of War |access-date=24 July 2018 |work=Sports Reference}}</ref><ref>Kausik Bandyopadhyay (2013). [https://www.google.com/books/edition/Why_Minorities_Play_or_Don_t_Play_Soccer/ERPcAAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22Julius+Hirsch%22+%22jewish%22+football&pg=PA59&printsec=frontcover ''Why Minorities Play Or Don't Play Soccer; A Global Exploration'']</ref>
 
Hirsch's children Esther and Heinold, deemed second-grade "[[Mischlinge]]", were forced to leave their school in 1938.<ref>[http://www.ligaterezin.com/german-footbal-museum?tmpl=%2Fsystem%2Fapp%2Ftemplates%2Fprint%2F&showPrintDialog=1 "German Football Museum,"] LIGA TEREZIN, 17 October 2015.</ref><ref name="auto2"/> In 1941 they were required to wear the [[Yellow badge|yellow star]].<ref name="auto2"/> In February 1945 they were deported to [[Theresienstadt]], from which they were liberated by the Red Army in May 1945.<ref name="auto2"/>
 
==Legacy==
Since 2005 the [[German Football Federation]] awards the "[[:de:Julius-Hirsch-Preis|Julius-Hirsch-Preis]]" for outstanding examples of integration and tolerance within German football.<ref>[https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 Ein Zeichen gegen Diskriminierung] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701021255/https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 |date= 1 July 2012}} {{in lang|de}} ''DFB'' website. Retrieved 25 June 2012</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/chelsea-fc-julius-hirsch-andreas/|title=Living with the ghost of my grandfather, a German Jewish football icon|first=Jack|last=Mendel|website=Times of Israel|date=20 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="auto"/>
 
In January 2020, Chelsea FC unveiled a mural by [[Solomon Souza]] on an outside wall of the West Stand at [[Stamford Bridge (stadium)|Stamford Bridge stadium]]. The mural is part of Chelsea's 'Say No to Antisemitism' campaign funded by club owner [[Roman Abramovich]]. Included on the mural are depictions of footballers Hirsch and [[Árpád Weisz]], who were killed at [[Auschwitz concentration camp]], and Ron Jones, a British [[prisoner of war]] known as the 'Goalkeeper of Auschwitz'.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/sports/chelsea-unveils-mural-with-jewish-soccer-players-murdered-at-auschwitz-614663|title=Chelsea unveils mural with Jewish soccer players murdered at Auschwitz|website=The Jerusalem Post}}</ref>
 
{{Referências}}
 
==Ligações externas==
*{{WorldFootball.net|julius-hirsch}}
*{{Webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101011183615/http://www.karlsruher-fv1891.de/kfvh.html |date=11 October 2010 |title=Pictures at Karlsruher-fv1891.de}} {{in lang|de}}
*[https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/sport/julius-hirsch.asp Julius Hirsch] at [[Yad Vashem]] website
{{Germany squad 1912 Summer Olympics}}
 
{{Controle de autoridade}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hirsch, Julius}}
[[Categoria:Jogadores da Seleção Alemã de Futebol]]
[[Categoria:Futebolistas da Alemanha]]
[[Categoria:Futebolistas do Spielvereinigung Greuther Fürth]]
[[Categoria:Futebolistas olímpicos da Alemanha]]
[[Categoria:Futebolistas nos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1912]]