Diferenças entre edições de "Usuário:Kaktus Kid/Testes"

632 bytes removidos ,  11h05min de 28 de novembro de 2021
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Depois de ingressar no [[Spielvereinigung Greuther Fürth|SpVgg Fürth]] em 1913, ganhou o campeonato alemão de futebol de 1914 com eles no ano seguinte.<ref name="auto"/><ref name=david>{{Cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2019/may/06/remembering-the-cream-of-jewish-footballing-talent-killed-in-the-holocaust|title=Remembering the cream of Jewish footballing talent killed in the Holocaust|date=6 de maio de 2019|website=The Guardian|author=David Bolchover}}</ref>
 
Hirsch foi o primeiro jogador judeu a representar a [[Seleção Alemã de Futebol]], na qual ingressou aos 18 anos de idade em 1911. <ref name="auto"/><ref name="auto1">{{Cite web|url=https://insidefutbol.com/2011/04/14/the-war-generation-julius-hirsch/40456/|title=The War Generation – Julius Hirsch|date=14 Aprilde abril de 2011|work=Inside Futbol}}</ref> Jogou em uma série de partidas pela Alemanha, incluindo os [[Futebol nos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1912|Jogos Olímpicos de 1912]] em [[Estocolmo]], Suécia.<ref name="auto1"/> Hirsch marcou quatro gols pela Alemanha contra a Holanda em 1912, tornando-se o primeiro alemão a marcar quatro gols em uma única partida.<ref name="auto"/><ref name=david/>
 
Hirsch se alistou e serviu por quatro anos no [[Exército Imperial Alemão]] na [[Primeira Guerra Mundial]] e foi condecorado com a [[Cruz de Ferro]].<ref name="auto1"/><ref>[https://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/sport/sportgeschichte/2008/4/7/newsnationalspieler-35781547/detailund-opfer-des-nationalsozialismus-id1726120.html Nationalspieler und Opfer des Nationalsozialismus] {{in lang|de}} ''Der Westen'', Published:publicado em 7 Aprilde abril de 2008. RetrievedAcessado 13em July28 de novembro de 20092021</ref> Seu irmão Leopold foi morto em combate em 1916, também lutando pelo exército alemão.<ref name="Olymp"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.macleans.ca/history/the-german-soccer-hero-who-escaped-the-nazis-for-canada/|title=The German soccer hero who escaped the Nazis for Canada|website=Macleans|author=Michael Coren|date= 13 Januaryde janeiro de 2020}}</ref>
 
Voltou para o ''KFV'' após a Primeira Guerra Mundial e se aposentou em 1925.<ref name="auto1"/> No entanto, permaneceu no clube como treinador de jovens.<ref name="Olymp">[https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501069 Deutscher Meister, Nationalspieler, Olympionike] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701022614/https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501069 |date= 1 Julyde julho de 2012 }} {{in lang|de}} ''DFB'' website. RetrievedAcessado 25em June28 2012de novembro de 2021</ref>
 
==Morto pela Alemanha nazista==
Lendo em um jornal em 10 de abril de 1933 que todos os clubes do [[Sul da Alemanha]] baniriam os membros judeus, Hirsch deixou o ''KFV'' por sua própria escolha após mais de 30 anos como membro. Em uma carta ao seu clube, ele solicitou que não fosse esquecido que, embora os judeus fossem agora os meninos açoitadores da nação, muitos deles haviam dado seu sangue vital pela nação alemã e eram verdadeiros patriotas, como mostram seus feitos e palavras.<ref name="Olymp"/> Em 1942 ele se divorciou de sua mulher não judia em um esforço para salvá-la e seus filhos dos nazistas.<ref name="auto2"/>
 
Hirsch foi deportado de [[Karlsruhe]] para o [[Auschwitz|campo de concentração de Auschwitz]] em 1 de março de 1943.<ref name="auto"/> Ele não acreditava que o governo o prejudicaria, pois lutou pela Alemanha na Primeira Guerra Mundial e jogou pelo futebol nacional alemão.<ref name="auto"/> A data exata de sua morte é desconhecida. Em 1950 um tribunal alemão o declarou morto com a data da morte fixada em 8 de maio de 1945, após seu 53º aniversário e após a libertação do campo pelo [[Exército Vermelho]] em janeiro daquele ano.<ref>Kausik Bandyopadhyay (2013). [https://www.google.com/books/edition/Why_Minorities_Play_or_Don_t_Play_Soccer/ERPcAAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22Julius+Hirsch%22+%22jewish%22+football&pg=PA59&printsec=frontcover ''Why Minorities Play Or Don't Play Soccer; A Global Exploration'']</ref>
 
Hirsch'sOs childrenfilhos de Hirsch, Esther ande Heinold, deemed second-gradeconsiderados "[[MischlingeMischling]]" de segundo grau, wereforam forcedforçados toa leavedeixar theira schoolescola inem 1938.<ref>[http://www.ligaterezin.com/german-footbal-museum?tmpl=%2Fsystem%2Fapp%2Ftemplates%2Fprint%2F&showPrintDialog=1 "German Football Museum,"] LIGA TEREZIN, 17 Octoberde outubro de 2015.</ref><ref name="auto2"/> InEm 1941 theyforam wereobrigados requireda tousar wear thea [[Yellow badge|yellowEstrela staramarela]].<ref name="auto2"/> InEm Februaryfevereiro de 1945 theyforam weredeportados deported topara [[Theresienstadt]], from whichde theyonde wereforam liberatedlibertados bypelo theExército RedVermelho Armyem inmaio Mayde 1945.<ref name="auto2"/>
Reading in a newspaper on 10 April 1933 that all [[Southern German]] clubs would ban Jewish members, Hirsch left ''KFV'' by his own choice after over 30 years as a member. In a letter to his club he requested that it should not be forgotten that, even though Jews were now the whipping boys of the nation, many of them had given their life blood for the German nation and were true patriots, as shown by their deeds and words.<ref name="Olymp"/> In 1942 he divorced his non-Jewish wife in an effort to save her and their children from the [[Nazi]]s.<ref name="auto2"/>
 
==Legado==
Hirsch was deported from [[Karlsruhe]], Germany, to [[Auschwitz concentration camp]] on 1 March 1943.<ref name="auto"/><ref>[http://db.yadvashem.org/deportation/transportDetails.html?language=en&itemId=9439366?WT.mc_id=wiki Transports to Extinction], The International Institute for Holocaust Research, [[Yad Vashem]]. Retrieved 2 March 2014</ref> He had not believed that the government would harm him, as he had fought for Germany in World War I and played for Germany's national football team.<ref name="auto"/> His exact date of death is unknown. In 1950, a German court declared him dead with the date of death set on 8 May 1945, past his 53rd birthday and after the camp's liberation by the [[Red Army]] in January that year.<ref name="jewsinsports">{{cite web|url=http://www.jewsinsports.org/profile.asp?sport=soccer&ID=102|title=Hirsch, Julius|access-date=27 March 2009|publisher=Jews in Sports}}</ref><ref name="WWII">{{cite web |url=https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/friv/lists.cgi?id=65 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200417055433/https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/friv/lists.cgi?id=65 |url-status=dead |archive-date=17 April 2020 |title=Olympians Who Were Killed or Missing in Action or Died as a Result of War |access-date=24 July 2018 |work=Sports Reference}}</ref><ref>Kausik Bandyopadhyay (2013). [https://www.google.com/books/edition/Why_Minorities_Play_or_Don_t_Play_Soccer/ERPcAAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22Julius+Hirsch%22+%22jewish%22+football&pg=PA59&printsec=frontcover ''Why Minorities Play Or Don't Play Soccer; A Global Exploration'']</ref>
SinceDesde 2005 thea [[GermanFederação FootballAlemã Federationde Futebol]] awardspatrocina theo "[[:de:Prêmio Julius- Hirsch-Preis|Julius-Hirsch-Preis]]" forpor outstandingexemplos examplesnotáveis of​​de integrationintegração ande tolerancetolerância withinno Germanfutebol footballalemão.<ref>[https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 Ein Zeichen gegen Diskriminierung] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701021255/https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 |date= 1 Julyde julho de 2012}} {{in lang|de}} ''DFB'' website. RetrievedAcessado 25em June28 2012de novembro de 2021</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/chelsea-fc-julius-hirsch-andreas/|title=Living with the ghost of my grandfather, a German Jewish football icon|first=Jack|last=Mendel|website=Times of Israel|date=20 Marchde março de 2020}}</ref><ref name="auto"/>
 
InEm Januaryjaneiro de 2020, o [[Chelsea FC]] unveiledexpôs aum mural byde [[Solomon Souza]] onem anuma outsideparede wallexterna of the West Stand atdo [[Stamford Bridge (stadiumestádio)|estádio Stamford Bridge stadium]]. TheO mural isfaz partparte ofda Chelsea'scampanha 'SayDiga Nonão toao Antisemitismanti-semitismo' campaigndo fundedChelsea, financiada pelo byproprietário clubdo ownerclube [[Roman Abramovich]]. IncludedIncluído on theno mural areestão representações dos depictionsjogadores ofde footballersfutebol Hirsch ande [[Árpád Weisz]], whoque wereforam killedmortos atno [[Auschwitzcampo concentrationde camp]]concentração de Auschwitz, ande Ron Jones, a Britishum [[prisonerprisioneiro ofde warguerra]] knownbritânico conhecido ascomo theo 'GoalkeeperGoleiro ofde Auschwitz'.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/sports/chelsea-unveils-mural-with-jewish-soccer-players-murdered-at-auschwitz-614663|title=Chelsea unveils mural with Jewish soccer players murdered at Auschwitz|website=The Jerusalem Post}}</ref>
Hirsch's children Esther and Heinold, deemed second-grade "[[Mischlinge]]", were forced to leave their school in 1938.<ref>[http://www.ligaterezin.com/german-footbal-museum?tmpl=%2Fsystem%2Fapp%2Ftemplates%2Fprint%2F&showPrintDialog=1 "German Football Museum,"] LIGA TEREZIN, 17 October 2015.</ref><ref name="auto2"/> In 1941 they were required to wear the [[Yellow badge|yellow star]].<ref name="auto2"/> In February 1945 they were deported to [[Theresienstadt]], from which they were liberated by the Red Army in May 1945.<ref name="auto2"/>
 
==Legacy==
Since 2005 the [[German Football Federation]] awards the "[[:de:Julius-Hirsch-Preis|Julius-Hirsch-Preis]]" for outstanding examples of integration and tolerance within German football.<ref>[https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 Ein Zeichen gegen Diskriminierung] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701021255/https://www.dfb.de/index.php?id=501068 |date= 1 July 2012}} {{in lang|de}} ''DFB'' website. Retrieved 25 June 2012</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/chelsea-fc-julius-hirsch-andreas/|title=Living with the ghost of my grandfather, a German Jewish football icon|first=Jack|last=Mendel|website=Times of Israel|date=20 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="auto"/>
 
In January 2020, Chelsea FC unveiled a mural by [[Solomon Souza]] on an outside wall of the West Stand at [[Stamford Bridge (stadium)|Stamford Bridge stadium]]. The mural is part of Chelsea's 'Say No to Antisemitism' campaign funded by club owner [[Roman Abramovich]]. Included on the mural are depictions of footballers Hirsch and [[Árpád Weisz]], who were killed at [[Auschwitz concentration camp]], and Ron Jones, a British [[prisoner of war]] known as the 'Goalkeeper of Auschwitz'.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/sports/chelsea-unveils-mural-with-jewish-soccer-players-murdered-at-auschwitz-614663|title=Chelsea unveils mural with Jewish soccer players murdered at Auschwitz|website=The Jerusalem Post}}</ref>
 
{{Referências}}
 
==Ligações externas==
*{{WorldFootball.net|julius-hirsch}}
*{{Webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101011183615/http://www.karlsruher-fv1891.de/kfvh.html |date=11 October 2010 |title=Pictures at Karlsruher-fv1891.de}} {{in lang|de}}
*[https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/sport/julius-hirsch.asp Julius Hirsch] at [[Yad Vashem]] website
 
{{Germany squad 1912 Summer Olympics}}
 
{{Seleção Alemã de Futebol de 1912 - Olimpíadas}}
 
{{Controle de autoridade}}