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Apache, também conhecido como atapasca (ou atabascano) meridional, é o nome genérico que recebe uma subfamília das línguas atapascas, falada principalmente no Sudoeste da América do Norte (nos estados americanos de Arizona, Novo México, Colorado, Utah, e no estado mexicano de Sonora), além de apresentar falantes isolados também em Oklahoma e no Texas. Estas línguas são faladas por grupos distintos de apaches e navajos.

Apache
Atapasca meridional, atabascano meridional
Distribuição
geográfica
Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
Classificação linguísticaDené–Yeniseian?
  • Apache
SubdivisõesApache da planície
  • Apache ocidental
  • Apache oriental
Southern Athabaskan langs.png
Distribuição das línguas apaches.

Os apaches ocidentais chamam o seu idioma de Nnee biyáti’ ou Ndee biyáti’, enquanto os navajos chamam seu idioma de Diné bizaad.

Existem diversas pessoas na história dos Estados Unidos cujo primeiro idioma era o apache. Geronimo (Goyaałé), que falava o chiricahua, foi um famoso líder guerrreiro; Manuelito, que falava o navajo, ficou famoso por sua liderança antes e depois da longa caminhada dos navajos.

Classificação e subdivisãoEditar

As sete línguas atabascanas meridionais podem ser divididas em dois grupos, de acordo com a classificação proposta pelo linguista americano Harry Hoijer: (I), "das Planícies", e (II), "do Sudoeste". O apache das planícies é o único membro do primeiro grupo, enquanto o grupo sudoeste pode ser dividido em dois outros subgrupos, (A), "Ocidental", e (B), "Oriental". O subgrupo ocidental consiste do apache ocidental, do navajo, do mescalero e do chiricahua, enquanto o oriental é formado pelo jicarilla e pelo lipano.

I. Apache das planícies (kiowa-apache)

II. Sudoeste

A. Ocidental
1. Chiricahua-Mescalero
a. Chiricahua
i. Chiricahua
ii. Warm Springs
b. Mescalero
2. Navajo
3. Apache ocidental (apache coyotero)
a. Tonto (tonto setentrional e meridional)
b. White Mountain
c. San Carlos
d. Cibecue
B. Oriental
1. Jicarilla
2. Lipano

A classificação de Hoijer teve como base principalmente as diferenças na pronúncia das consoantes iniciais das raízes de substantivos e verbos. Sua classificação anterior, feita em 1938, tinha apenas duas divisões, e o grupo das planícies era agrupado com as outras línguas orientais, como o jicarilla e o lipano.

O mescalero e o chiricahua são considerados idiomas diferentes, ainda que sejam mutualmente inteligíveis;[1] O apache ocidental (especialmente a variedade de Dilzhe) e o navajo são mais próximos entre si do que são do mescalero e do chiricahua. O apache lipano e da planície estão virtualmente extintos, enquanto o chiricahua, o mescalero, jicarilla e o apache ocidental estão correndo sério risco de extinção. O número de crianças que aprendem estes idiomas continua a ser reduzido; o uso do navajo, considerado uma das línguas nativas da América do Norte com maior difusão, diminuiu recentemente de 90% para 30%.[2]

FonologiaEditar

Todas as línguas apaches têm fonologias semelhantes. A descrição abaixo concentra-se principalmente no apache ocidental; os outros idiomas apresentarão variações maiores ou menores desta descrição (ver navajo, jicarilla, chiricahua).

ConsoantesEditar

As línguas atabascanas meridionais geralmente apresentam um inventório consonantal semelhante ao conjunto de 33 consoantes abaixos:

  Labial Alveolar Alveolar Lateral Palatal Velar Glotal
(série africada)
Oclusiva não-aspirada p t ts k (kʷ)  
aspirada   tsʰ tɬʰ tʃʰ kʰ (kʷʰ)  
glotalizada   tsʼ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʔ
pré-anasalada/
sonora
(ⁿb) (ⁿd/d/n)          
Nasal simple m n          
glotalizada (ˀm) (ˀn)          
Fricativa surda     s ɬ ʃ x h
sonora (v)   z l ʒ ɣ (ɣʷ)  
Aproximante         j (w)  
  • Apenas o navajo e o apache ocidental têm nasais glotalizadas.

Referências

  1. O Ethnologue considera-os a mesma língua.
  2. The New York Times, 9 de abril de 1998, p. A20.

BibliografiaEditar

  • Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (14th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-106-9. (Online edition: http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed on Nov. 19th, 2004.)
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1938). The southern Athapaskan languages. American Anthropologist, 40 (1), 75-87.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). Classificatory verb stems in the Apachean languages. International Journal of American Linguistics, 11 (1), 13-23.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). The Apachean verb, part I: Verb structure and pronominal prefixes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 11 (4), 193-203.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part II: The prefixes for mode and tense. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (1), 1-13.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part III: The classifiers. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (2), 51-59.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1948). The Apachean verb, part IV: Major form classes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 14 (4), 247–259.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1949). The Apachean verb, part V: The theme and prefix complex. International Journal of American Linguistics, 15 (1), 12–22.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1956). The Chronology of the Athapaskan languages. International Journal of American Linguistics, 22 (4), 219-232.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1963). The Athapaskan languages. In H. Hoijer (Ed.), Studies in the Athapaskan languages (pp. 1–29). University of California publications in linguistics 29. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry (Ed.). (1963). Studies in the Athapaskan languages. University of California publications in linguistics 29. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1971). The position of the Apachean languages in the Athapaskan stock. In K. H. Basso & M. E. Opler (Eds.), Apachean culture history and ethnology (pp. 3–6). Anthropological papers of the University of Arizona (No. 21). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Hymes, Dell H. (1957). A note on Athapaskan glottochronology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 22 (4), 291-297.
  • Liebe-Harkot, Marie-Louise. (1984). A comparison of Apachean languages, exemplified by the verb system for handling verbs. In H. Krenn, J. Niemeyer, & U. Eberhardt (Eds.), Sprache und Text: Akten des 18: Linguistischen Kolloquiums, Linz 1983. Linguistische Arbeiten (Max Niemeyer Verlag) (Nos. 145-146). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. ISBN 3-484-30145-7 (Bd. 1); ISBN 3-484-30146-5 (Bd. 2).
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (2001). Prototypes and fuzziness in the system and usage of Apachean classificatory verb stems. In S. Tuttle & G. Holton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2001 Athabaskan Languages Conference (No. 1, pp. 75–94). Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1936). Linguistic evidence suggestive of the northern origin of the Navaho. American Anthropologist, 38 (2), 224-235.
  • Young, Robert W. (1983). Apachean languages. In A. Ortiz, W. C. Sturtevant (eds.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 393–400). Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004579-7.
Chiricahua
  • Hoijer, Harry. (n.d.). Chiricahua Apache stems. (Unpublished manuscript).
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1938). Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-404-15783-1.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1939). Chiricahua loan-words from Spanish. Language, 15 (2), 110-115.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). Chiricahua Apache. In C. Osgood (Ed.), Linguistic structures in North America. Nova York: Wenner-Green Foundation for Anthropological Research.
  • Opler, Morris E., & Hoijer, Harry. (1940). The raid and war-path language of the Chiricahua Apache. Language, 42 (4), 617-634.
  • Pinnow, Jürgen. (1988). Die Sprache der Chiricahua-Apachen: Mit Seitenblicken auf das Mescalero [The language of the Chiricahua Apache: With side glances at the Mescalero]. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Webster, Anthony K. (1999). Sam Kenoi's "Coyote and the Whiteman": Contact in and out of a Chiricahua narrative. In A. Trefzer & R. L. Murray (Eds.), Reclaiming Native American cultures, proceedings of the Native American Symposium (pp. 67–80). Durant, OK: Southeastern Oklahoma State University.
  • Webster, Anthony K. (1999). Sam Kenoi's coyote stories: Poetics and rhetoric in some Chiricahua Apache narratives. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 23, 137-163.
  • Webster, Anthony K. (1999). Lisandro Medez's "Coyote and Deer": On reciprocity, narrative structures, and interactions. American Indian Quarterly, 23, 1-24.
  • Webster, Anthony K. (2006). On Speaking to Him (Coyote): The Discourse Function of the yi-/bi- Alternation in Some Chiricahua Apache Narratives. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 25(2), 143-160.
Mescalero
  • Breunginger, Evelyn; Hugar, Elbys; & Lathan, Ellen Ann. (1982). Mescalero Apache dictionary. Mescalero: NM: Mescalero Apache Tribe.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1938). Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-404-15783-1.
  • Pinnow, Jürgen. (1988). Die Sprache der Chiricahua-Apachen: Mit Seitenblicken auf das Mescalero [The language of the Chiricahua Apache: With side glances at the Mescalero]. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Rushforth, Scott. (1991). Uses of Bearlake and Mescalero (Athapaskan) classificatory verbs. International Journal of American Linguistics, 57, 251-266.
Jicarilla
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1911). Jicarilla Apache texts. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History (Vol. 8). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Phone, Wilhelmina; Olson, Maureen; & Martinez, Matilda. (forthcoming). Abáachi mizaa łáo iłkee’ shijai: Dictionary of Jicarilla Apache. Axelrod, Melissa; Gómez de García, Jule; Lachler, Jordan; & Burke, Sean (Eds.). UNM Press. (Estimated publication date: summer 2006).
  • Phone, Wilma; & Torivio, Patricia. (1981). Jicarilla mizaa medaóołkai dáłáéé. Albuquerque: Native American Materials Development Center.
  • Tuttle, Siri G.; & Sandoval, Merton. (2002). Jicarilla Apache. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32, 105-112.
  • Vicenti, Carson. (1981). Jicarilla Apache dictionary. Native American Materials Development Center, Ramah Navajo School Board.
  • Wilson, Alan, & Vigil Martine, Rita. (1996). Apache (Jicarilla). Guilford, CT: Audio-Forum. ISBN 0-88432-903-8. (Includes book and cassette recording).
Navajo
 Ver artigo principal: Língua navaja#Bibliografia
Apache ocidental
  • Basso, Keith H. (1979). Portraits of "the whiteman": Linguistic play and cultural symbols among the Western Apache. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29593-9.
  • Basso, Keith H. (1990). Western Apache language and culture: Essays in lingustic anthropology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1323-6.
  • Basso, Keith H. (1996). Wisdom sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1724-3.
  • Bray, Dorothy, & White Mountain Apache Tribe. (1998). Western Apache-English dictionary: A community-generated bilingual dictionary. Tempe, AZ: Bilingual Press. ISBN 0-927534-79-7.
  • Durbin, Marshall. (1964). A componential analysis of the San Carlos dialect of Western Apache: A study based on the analysis of the phonology, morphophonics, and morphemics. (dissertação doutoral, Universidade Estadual de Nova York, Buffalo).
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1919). San Carlos Apache texts. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 3). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1920). White Mountain Apache texts. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 4). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Goodwin, Grenville. (1939). Myth and tales of the White Mountain Apache. New York: American Folk-Lore Society (J. J. Augustin). ISBN 0-8165-1451-8
  • Gordon, Matthew; Potter, Brian; Dawson, John; de Reuse, Willem; & Ladefoged, Peter. (2001). Phonetic structures of Western Apache. International Journal of American Linguistics, 67 (4), 415-481.
  • Greenfeld, Philip J. (1971). Playing card names in Western Apache. International Journal of American Linguistics, 37 (3), 195-196.
  • Greenfeld, Philip J. (1972). The phonological hierarchy of the White Mountain dialect of Western Apache. (dissertação doutoral, Universidade do Arizona, Tucson).
  • Greenfeld, Philip J. (1978). Some special phonological characteristics of the White Mountain dialect of Apachean. Anthropological Linguistics, 20 (1), 150-157.
  • Greenfeld, Philip J. (1984). A treatment for stress in Apache. International Journal of American Linguistics, 50 (1), 105-111.
  • Hill, Faith. (1963). Some comparisons between the San Carlos and White Mountain dialects of Western Apache. In H. Hoijer (ed.), Studies in the Athapaskan languages (pp. 149–154). University of California publications in linguistics 29. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Mierau, Eric. (1963). Concerning Yavapai-Apache bilingualism. International Journal of American Linguistics, 29 (1), 1-3.
  • Potter, Brian. (1997). Wh/indefinites and the structure of the clause in Western Apache. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.)
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (1993). Stylistic and dialectal variation in Western Apache phonology. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (2006). A practical grammar of the San Carlos Apache language. LINCOM Studies in Native American Linguistics 51. LINCOM. ISBN 3-89586-861-2.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1972). Western Apache dictionary. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1983). New! keys to reading and writing Apache (ed. rev.). Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
Outras
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1975). The history and customs of the Lipan, as told by Augustina Zuazua. Linguistics, 161, 5-38.
  • Bittle. 1963. "Kiowa-Apache." In Studies in the Athapaskan Languages. (ed. Hoijer, Harry). University of California Studies in Linguistics vol. 29. Berkeley: California UP. 76-101.

Ligações externasEditar