Muhammad Iqbal

Sir Muhammad Iqbal, em urdu: محمد اقبال (Sialkot, 9 de novembro de 187721 de abril de 1938), também conhecido como Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), foi um escritor muçulmano do sul da Ásia,[1][2] filósofo,[3] e político,[4] cuja poesia na língua urdu está entre o maior do século XX,[5][6][7][8] e cuja visão de um ideal cultural e político para os muçulmanos da Índia governada pelos britânicos[9] era animar o impulso para o Paquistão.[1][10] Ele é comumente referido pelo honorífico Allama (do persa علامه ʻallāma, "muito conhecedor, muito erudito".[11])

Muhammad Iqbal
Nascimento 9 de novembro de 1877
Sialcote
Morte 21 de abril de 1938 (60 anos)
Laore
Residência Laore, Sialcote
Cidadania Índia britânica, Reich Alemão
Etnia Punjabi people
Progenitores
  • Noor Muhammad
  • Imam Bi
Filho(s) Javid Iqbal
Alma mater
Ocupação filósofo, escritor, poeta, escritor de literatura infantil, político, advogado
Prêmios
Obras destacadas Ilm Al-Iqtisad, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, The Secrets of the Self, Message from the East, The Call of the Marching Bell, Persian Psalms, Javid Nama, Gabriel's Wing, The Rod of Moses, What should then be done O people of the East, Gift from Hijaz
Religião Islão
Página oficial
http://www.allamaiqbal.com

Nascido e criado em Sialkot, Punjab (atual Paquistão) em uma família étnica da Caxemira, Iqbal estudou em Sialkot e Lahore e, posteriormente, na Inglaterra e na Alemanha. Embora tenha estabelecido uma prática jurídica após retornar, ele se concentrou principalmente em escrever trabalhos acadêmicos sobre política, economia, história, filosofia e religião. Ele é mais conhecido por suas obras poéticas, incluindo Asrar-e-Khudi - que trouxe a cavalaria - Rumuz-e-Bekhudi e o Bang-e-Dara. No Irã, onde ele é conhecido como Iqbāl-e Lāhorī (Iqbal de Lahore), ele é altamente considerado por suas obras persas.

Iqbal foi um forte defensor do renascimento político e espiritual da civilização islâmica em todo o mundo, mas em particular no sul da Ásia; uma série de palestras que proferiu nesse sentido foram publicadas como A Reconstrução do Pensamento Religioso no Islã. Líder da All India Muslim League, ele imaginou - em seu discurso presidencial de 1930 - uma estrutura política separada para os muçulmanos na Índia governada pelos britânicos.[9] Após a criação do Paquistão em 1947, ele foi nomeado o poeta nacional de lá. O aniversário de seu nascimento (Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl) em 9 de novembro é um feriado no Paquistão.[12]

ObrasEditar

ProsaEditar

  • Ilm ul Iqtisad (1903)

Poesia em persaEditar

  • Asrar-i-Khudi (1915)
  • Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (1917)
  • Payam-i-Mashriq (1923)
  • Zabur-i-Ajam (1927)
  • Javid Nama (1932)
  • Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq (1936)
  • Armughan-e-Hijaz (1938)

Poesia em urduEditar

  • Bang-i-Dara (1924)
  • Bal-i-Jibril (1935)
  • Zarb-i Kalim (1936)

Livros em inglêsEditar

  • The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908)
  • The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)

Referências

  1. a b Lelyveld, David (2004), «Muhammad Iqbal», in: Martin, Richard C., Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World: A-L, ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5, Macmillan, p. 356, Muhammad Iqbal, South Asian poet and ideological innovator, wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian and discursive prose, primarily in English, of particular significance in the formulation of a national ethos for Pakistan. 
  2. Iqbal, Sir Muhammad; Singh, Khushwant (translator); Zakaria, Rafiq (foreword) (1981), Shikwa and Jawab-i-shikwa, ISBN 978-0-19-561324-7 (em inglês e urdu), Oxford University Press, "Iqbal it is true, is essentially a poet of Islam ... the Islam which provided a new light of thought and learning to the world, and of heroic action and glorious deeds. He was devoted to the Prophet and believe his message." (from the foreword by Rafiq Zakaria, p. 9) 
  3. Kiernan, V.G. (2013). Poems from Iqbal: Renderings in English Verse with Comparative Urdu Text. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press and Iqbal Academy Pakistan. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 978-0-19-906616-2  Quote: "In Persian, ... he published six volumes of mainly long poems between 1915 and 1936, ... more or less complete works on philosophical themes" (p. xiii)"
  4. Sevea, Iqbal Singh (2012), The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India, ISBN 978-1-107-00886-1, Cambridge University Press, pp. 14–, Iqbal was elected to the Punjab Legislative Council in 1927 and held various posts both in the All-India Muslim League and the Punjab Provincial Muslim League. 
  5. Kiernan, V.G. (2013). Poems from Iqbal: Renderings in English Verse with Comparative Urdu Text. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press and Iqbal Academy Pakistan. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 978-0-19-906616-2  Quote: "In Urdu, Iqbal is allowed to have been far the greatest poet of this century, and by most critics to be the only equal of Ghalib (1797-1869). ... the Urdu poems, addressed to a real and familiar audience close at hand, have the merit of being direct, spontaneous utterances on tangible subjects. (p. xiii)"
  6. McDonough, Sheila D (5 de novembro de 2020), Muhammad Iqbal, Encyclopedia Britannica, consultado em 7 de fevereiro de 2021, He is considered the greatest poet in Urdu of the 20th century 
  7. Anjum, Zafar (13 de outubro de 2014), Iqbal: The Life of a Poet, Philosopher and Politician, ISBN 978-81-8400-656-8, Random House, pp. 16–, Responding to this call, he published a collection of Urdu poems, Bal-e-Jibril (The Wings of Gabriel) in 1935 and Zarb-e Kalim (The Stroke of the Rod of Moses) in 1936. Through this, Iqbal achieved the status of the greatest Urdu poet in the twentieth century. 
  8. Robinson, Francis (1996), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1, Cambridge University Press, pp. 283–, In India, the ghazal and mathnawi forms were adapted in Urdu to express new social and ideological concerns, beginning in the work of the poet Altaf Husayn Hali (1837-1914) and continuing in the poetry of Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938). In the poetry of Iqbal, which he wrote in Persian, to speak to a wider Muslim audience, as well as Urdu, a memory of the past achievements of Islam is combined with a plea for reform. He is considered the greatest Urdu poet of the twentieth century. 
  9. a b Sevea, Iqbal Singh (2012), The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India, ISBN 978-1-107-00886-1, Cambridge University Press, pp. 14–, In 1930, he presided over the meeting of the All-India Muslim League in Allahabad. It was here that he delivered his famous address in which he outlined his vision of a cultural and political framework that would ensure the fullest development of the Muslims of India. 
  10. Embree, Ainslie Thomas; Hay, Stephen N.; Bary, William Theodore De (1988), Sources of Indian Tradition: Modern India and Pakistan, ISBN 978-0-231-06414-9, Columbia University Press, Sir Syed Ahmed had brought rationalism and the desire for knowledge and progress to the Indian Muslims; Muhammad Iqbal brought them inspiration and a philosophy. Next to the Quran, there is no single influence upon the consciousness of the Pakistani intelligentsia so powerful as Iqbal’s poetry. In his own time it kindled the enthusiasm of Muslim intellectuals for the values of Islam and rallied the Muslim community once again to the banner of their faith. For this reason Iqbal is looked upon today as the spiritual founder of Pakistan. 
  11. Platts, John T. (John Thompson) (1884), A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co., consultado em 6 de fevereiro de 2021 
  12. «Birthday of Iqbal», Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Omnigraphics, Inc., 2010, consultado em 8 de fevereiro de 2021 

Ligações externasEditar