Korean Reunification Thesaurus
남북 통일 유의어 사전 (南北統一類義語辭典)
북남통일 류의어사전 (北南統一類義語辭典)

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Foreign Language Equivalent Southern Term
Northern Term
Notes / Remarks
Alto, Contralto 알토, 콘트랄토 녀성저음
GLOSS: "녀성" (female), "저" (low, beneath), "음" (voice, sound)
Anguilla 앵귈라 앵귈러 Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean
Apartment, Flat (アパート) 아파트 문화주택 (文化住宅), 아빠트 GLOSS: "문화" (culture), "주택" (housing, residential)
Australia 호주, 오스트레일리아 오스트랄리아 The Hanja form of "호주" (hoju) is "濠州"; however it is "豪州" (goushuu) in Kanji
The southern term "오스트레일리아" was derived from the approximate Australian accent pronunciation of Australia [ɒˈstreɪliə]; the northern term, on the other hand is from Russian "Австралия" (Avstraliya)
Backstroke, Back Crawl 배영
누운헤염 GLOSS: "누운" (lying, recumbent, supine), "헤염" (swim)
Bangladesh (অরুণাচল প্রদেশ, अरुणाचल प्रदेश) 방글라데시 방글라데슈
Barber's Shop (理髮所) 이발소 리발소
Baritone 바리톤 남성중음
GLOSS: "남성" (male), "중" (centre, middle), "음" (voice, sound)
Basketball (籠球) 농구 롱구
Bass 베이스 남성저음
GLOSS: "남성" (male), "저" (low, beneath), "음" (voice, sound)
Belarus (Беларусь) 벨라루스 벨라루씨
Brussels (Brussel) 브뤼셀 브류쎌
Bulgaria (Болгария) 불가리아 벌가리아 The northern term was derived from Russian; the Bulgarian term though is "България" (Bŭlgariya)
Cairo (القاهرة) 카이로 까히라
Cambodia (Камбоджа) 캄보디아 캄보쟈
Canada (Канада) 캐나다 카나다 The southern term was not derived from English, but from French (though uncertain of the claims)
Caramel 캐러멜 기름사탕 "기름사탕" (gireum satang) literally means "oil candy"
Cartilage 연골
Campaign (Кампания) 캠페인 깜빠니아
Cherry Blossom 벚꽃 벗꽃 In the south, the spelling catches the word as the combination of "벚" (beot) and "꽃" (kkot), but in the north, this is no longer recognised and thus the word is written as pronounced as "벗꽃" (same as in the south)
Chopsticks 젓가락 저가락 Both can either be pronounced as "젇까락" [tɕʌt̚k͈aɾak̚] or "저까락" [tɕʌk͈aɾak̚]
Civilians, Citizens, Public 민간인 (民間人)
일반인 (一般人)
Closure (閉鎖) 폐쇄 페쇄 Where a Hanja is written 폐 [pʰje] in the South, this is written 페 [pʰe] in the North (but even in the South, it is pronounced as 페 /pʰe/)
Coalition (聯合) 연합 련합
Cold Noodles (冷麵) 냉면 랭면
Cold Water (冷水) 냉수 랭수
Competence, Strength (力量) 역량 력량
Computer 컴퓨터 콤퓨터
Conifer 구과식물
바늘잎식물 GLOSS: "바늘" (needle), "잎" (leaf), "식물" (tree)
Typical examples of conifers include cedars, douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews
Connection, Link (聯結) 연결 련결
Contribution to a Feast (醵)
Copenhagen (København) 코펜하겐 쾨뻰하븐
Corn, Maize 옥수수 강냉이 "강냉이" (gangnaeng'i) is also heard in some southern dialects of Korean
Courtesy, Etiquette, Manners 예의 례의
Cuisine (料理) 요리 료리
Cup (コップ) 고뿌
Czechoslovakia (Československo) 체코슬로바키아 체스꼬슬로벤스꼬
Cuba (Куба) 쿠바 꾸바
Dentist 치과의사
The northern term literally means "oral physician"
Discipline, Rules, Order (規律) 규율 규률
Divorce (離婚) 이혼 리혼
Downfall (落下) 낙하 락하
Dunk Shoot 덩크 슛 꽂아넣기
Egypt 이집트 에짚트 Traditionally "애급" (埃及, aegeup)
Elderly Person (老人) 노인 로인 This is neutral in the north, but is pejorative in the south
Elementary School 초등학교
Energy (エネルギー) 에너지 에네르기
Female (女性) 여성 녀성
Friend 친구
The word "동무" (dongmu) that is used to mean "friend" in the North was originally a native Korean word used across the whole of Korea, but after the division of Korea, the north began to use it as a translation of the Russian term "Товарищ" (Tovarishch, "comrade" or "friend"), and since then, the word has come to mean "comrade" in the south as well and has fallen out of use there
Frying 튀김 튀기
Germany (Deutschland) 독일 도이췰란드 The southern name "독일" (dogil) is the Korean pronunciation of the former Japanese name "獨逸" (doitsu, now largely superseded by its Katakana form ドイツ). The compound coined by the Japanese was adapted into Korean, so its characters 獨逸 are not pronounced do+itsu as in Japanese, but dok+il = Dogil. Until the 1980s, southern primary textbooks adopted "도이칠란트" (do'ichillanteu) which approximates the German pronunciation [ˈdɔʏtʃ.lant] of Deutschland. The official northern name "도이췰란드" (toich'willandŭ) approximates the German pronunciation [ˈdɔʏtʃ.lant] of Deutschland. Traditionally "독일" had been used in the north until the 1990s. Use of the Chinese name "德國" (in its Korean pronunciation "덕국" [deokguk]) is attested for the early 20th century, though is now obsolete.
Goalkeeper 골키퍼 문지기 "문지기" (munjigi) in the south will just mean "gatekeeper" or "doorkeeper"
Goose 거위 케사니
Guadeloupe 과들루프 과들루쁘 Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole "Gwadloup", Spanish "Guadalupe") is an overseas territory of France in the Carribean
Hair Dryer 헤어드라이어 건발기
Haiti (Haïti) 아이티 아이띠
Hamburger 햄버거 고기겹빵 GLOSS: "고기" (meat), "겹" (fold), "빵" (bread)
Hammer 망치 마치
Handling 핸들링 손다치기
Helicopter 헬리콥터 직승기
"직승기" (jikseunggi) literally means "straight-rise machine"
Historiography (歷史學) 역사학 력사학
History (歷史) 역사 력사
Hokkaido (北海道) 홋카이도 혹가이도 Traditionally "북해도" (bukhaedo)
Hungary (Magyar) 헝가리 마쟈르, 웽그리아 The northern term "웽그리아" (wonggeuria) was derived from Russian "Венгрия" (Vengriya)
Ice Cream 아이스크림 얼음보숭이, 얼음과자 GLOSS: "얼음" (ice), "과자" (confectionery[?])
India 인도
Indian Ocean 인도양
Inn 여인숙 려인숙
Italy (Italia) 이탈리아 이딸리아 Existence of "의대리" (意大利, euidaeri) uncertain
Jazz 재즈 쟈즈
Juice 주스 단물 "단물" (danmul) in the south means "sweet water" and "honeydew"
Keyboard Instrument (musical, i.e. Clavier) 건반 악기
Khasan (Хасан) 하산 하싼 Khasan is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Khasansky District of Primorsky Krai, Russia, the only inhabited locality on the border with the north
Kilo (キロ) 킬로 키로
Leaf 나뭇잎 나무잎 Both are pronounced as "나문닙" (namunnip) though
Leipzig 라이프치히 라이프찌히 City in the federal distric of Saxony in Germany
Lettuce 상추 부루
Lunch (box) 도시락 곽밥
Magma 마그마 돌물 GLOSS: "돌" (stone), "물" (water)
Meter, Metre 미터 메터
Mexico (México, Méjico) 멕시코 메히꼬
Mezzo Soprano 메조소프라노 녀성중음
GLOSS: "녀성" (female), "중" (centre, middle), "음" (voice, sound)
Mount Halla (漢拏山) 한라산 한나산 The pronunciation in the south (hallasan) is the same in the north
Nakdong River (洛東江) 낙동강 락동강
Netherlands, The (Nederland) 네덜란드 네데를란드
Nun, Priestess (尼僧) 이승 니승
On, Above
One-Piece Dress 원피스 달린옷
Online Game 온라인 게임 직결유희
GLOSS: "직결" (direct), "유" (connection, bind), "희" (game, play)
Paradise (樂園) 낙원 락원
Past 과거
Penalty Kick, Free Kick 페널티킥, 프리킥 벌차기 GLOSS: "벌" (punishment), "차기" (kick)
Persia 페르시아 페르샤
Peru (Perú) 페루 뻬루
Pizza 피차 삐쨔
Plain, Flat 평야 (平野)
평지 (平地)
벌방 In geography, a plain is a flat area that occurs as a lowland and at the bottoms of valleys but also on plateaus or uplands at high elevations
Portugal 포르투갈 뽀르뚜갈 Existence of "포도아" (葡萄牙) uncertain
Poland (Polska) 폴란드 뽈스까
Prague (Praha) 프라하 쁘라하
Practice, Workout (練習) 연습 련습
Prostate Glands 전립샘
Pythagorean Theorem 피타고라스의 정리 세평방정리
"세평방정리" (sepyeongbang jeongri) literally means "Three-square Theorem"
Qatar (Катар) 카타르 까타르 "قطر" is the Arabic form
Radio (ラジオ) 라디오 라지오
Rail (レール) 레일 레루 The northern term was derived from English via Japanese
Reason (理由) 이유 리유
Romania (România) 루마니아 로므니아 The southern term was derived from the English obsolete spelling "Rumania"
Russia (Россия) 러시아 로씨야 The southern term was derived from English, whereas the northern was from Russian
Ryanggang Province (兩江道) 양강도 량강도 The official Romanisation (McCune-Reischauer) is "Ryanggang-do" since the province is currently under effective jurisdiction of the northern government; however, in the south, it is romanised (Revised Romanisation) as "Yanggang-do", and is regarded as part of North Hamgyong Province (함경북도, 咸鏡北道) though
Sad Separation (袂別) 몌별 메별 Where a Hanja is written 몌 [mje] in the South, this is written 메 [me] in the North (but even in the South, it is pronounced as 메 /me/)
Saturday 토요일
Seaweed 바닷말 바다나물 GLOSS: "바다" (sea), "나물" (herb)
The Sino-Korean word is "해조" (海藻, haejo); however, ""해조" may also mean "harmony" or "melody" (諧調), "seabird" (海鳥), "tide" (海潮) or "vermin" ("害鳥", colloquially "varmint" or "varmit", pests or nuisance animals, especially those that threaten human society by spreading diseases or destroying crops and livestock)
Serbia (Србија) 세르비아 쓰르비아, 쎄르비아 "쓰르비아" was derived from Serbian "Србија" (Srbija); "쎄르비아" from Russian "Сербия" (Serbiya)
Seven (7) 일곱 닐곱 Not to be confused with the Sino-Korean of seven "칠" (七, chil)
Shampoo 샴푸 머리물비누 GLOSS: "머리" (hair, head), "물" (water, liquid), "비누" (soap)
Shorts 반바지 무릎바지
Silicate (Силикат) 실리케이트 실리카트
Skin Lotion 스킨 로션 살결물 GLOSS: "살결" (complexion, flesh), "물" (water, liquid)
Soprano 소프라노 녀성고음
GLOSS: "녀성" (female), "고" (high), "음" (voice, sound)
Soviet Union 소비에트 연방 (소련) 쏘베트련맹 (쏘련) The northern term "쏘베트" (ssobeteu) came from the Russian word "Совет" (Sovet) which literally means "council"
"소련" and "쏘련" are both "蘇聯" in Hanja; "연방" (yeonbang) is "聯邦", and "련맹" (ryonmeng) is "聯盟" which both mean union or confederation
Spaghetti 스파게티 스빠게띠
Spain (España) 스페인 에스빠냐 Existence of "서반아" (西班牙, seobana) uncertain
Stocking 스타킹 살양말, 스토킹 "스타킹" (seutaking) is from American English; "스토킹" (sŭt'ok'ing) from British English
Sunlight, Sunshine 햇빛 해빛 The "sai siot" ('ㅅ' used for indicating sound change) is almost never written out in the north
Supervision 감독
GLOSS: "책임" (Reponsibility), "연출" (Production)
Sweden (Sverige) 스웨덴 스웨리예
Swimming 헤엄
수영 (水泳)
Syria (سوريا) 시리아 수리아
Tape 테이프
테프 (テープ)
"띠" (ti) literally means "belt" or "girdle"
Television [Channel] 텔레비전 [채널] 텔레비죤 [통로]
Tenor (男性高音) 테너 남성고음 GLOSS: "남성" (male), "고" (high), "음" (voice, sound)
Togo (Того) 토고 또고
Tokyo (東京) 도쿄 도꾜 Traditionally "동경", though the latter may also mean "East Longitude" (東經) or "Copper Mirror" (銅鏡)
Tractor (Трактор) 트랙터 뜨락또르
Train (列車) 열차 렬차
Tunisia (Tunisie) 튀니지 뜌니지
Turtle 거북 거부기
Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар) 울란바토르 울란바따르 The northern term was derived from Mongolian "Улаанбаатар" (Ulaanbataar); "ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ" (Ulaganbagatur) in Mongolian script
United Arab Emirates 아랍에미리트 아랍추장국 "酋長國" is the Hanja form of "추장국" (chujangguk)
Upright 올바르다 옳바르다 ol| part shows that the etymological origin is forgotten, and the word is written as pronounced as 올바르다 (olbareuda); in the North, the first part is seen to come from 옳다 (olhda) and thus, the whole word is written 옳바르다 (pronounced the same as in the South)
Uzbekistan (Узбекистан) 우즈베키스탄 우즈베끼스딴
Valley 골짜기 골시내 The Sino-Korean is "계곡" (溪谷, gyegok)
Video (ビデオ) 비디오 비데오
Video Tape Recorder (VTR) 비디오 테이프 레코더 록화기
Vietnam (Việt Nam) 베트남 윁남 Traditionally "월남" (越南, wolnam)
Vladivostok (Владивосток) 블라디보스토크 울라지보스또끄
Wagon, Cart 수레 달구지
Warsaw (Warszawa) 바르샤바 와르샤와
Woman (女子) 여자 녀자
Worker (勞動者) 노동자 로동자

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