Sacerdócio de todos os crentes: diferenças entre revisões

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É um conceito fundamental do [[protestantismo]].<ref>"Protestantism originated in the 16th-century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the supremacy of Holy Scripture in matters of faith and order" ("The Protestant Heritage." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Sept. 2007 []</ref> Embora [[Martinho Lutero]] não tenha usado exatamente a frase ''"sacerdócio de todos os crentes,"'' ele apresenta um sacerdócio geral à cristandade em 1520 em ''"[[To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation]]"'', de modo a dispensar a visão medieval de que os Cristãos na vida presente fossem divididos em duas classes: "espirituais" e "temporais". Ele apresentou a doutrina em que todos os cristãos batizados são "sacerdotes" e "espirituais" à vista de [[Deus]]:
{{citação2|Que o [[papa]] ou o [[bispo]] façam as unções, [[tonsura]]s, [[ordem (sacramento)|ordenações]], [[consagração|consagrações]] ou se vistam diferentemente dos leigos; podem fazer um ícone hipócrita ou um ídolo pintado a óleo, mas de forma alguma podem fazer de um cristão um ser humano espiritual. De fato, somos todos sacerdotes consagrados através do [[batismo]], como [[São Pedro]], em {{citar bíblia|I Pedro|2|9}} diz, '"vós sóis um sacerdócio real e reino de sacerdotes"' e em {{citar bíblia|Apocalipse 5|10}}, "pelo Teu sangue nos fizeste sacerdotes e reis".|[[Martinho Lutero]]|''Weimar Ausgabe''<ref>Martin Luther, ''Weimar Ausgabe'', vol. 6, p. 407, lines 19-25 as quoted in Timothy Wengert, "The Priesthood of All Believers and Other Pious Myths," page 12 []{{Dead link|date=May 2010}}.</ref>}}
Two months later Luther would write in his ''[[On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church]]'' (1520):
<blockquote>How then if they are forced to admit that we are all equally priests, as many of us as are baptized, and by this way we truly are; while to them is committed only the Ministry (''ministerium Predigtamt'') and consented to by us (''nostro consensu'')? If they recognize this they would know that they have no right to exercise power over us (''ius imperii'', in what has not been committed to them) except insofar as we may have granted it to them, for thus it says in 1 Peter 2, "You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a priestly kingdom." In this way we are all priests, as many of us as are Christians. There are indeed priests whom we call ministers. They are chosen from among us, and who do everything in our name. That is a priesthood which is nothing else than the Ministry. Thus 1 Corinthians 4:1: "No one should regard us as anything else than ministers of Christ and dispensers of the mysteries of God."<ref>''De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium'' [''Prelude concerning the Babylonian Captivity of the church''], ''Weimar Ausgabe'' 6, 564.6-14 as quoted in Norman Nagel, "Luther and the Priesthood of All Believers," ''Concordia Theological Quarterly'' 61 (October 1997) 4:283-84.</ref></blockquote>
The Bible passage considered to be the basis of this belief is the [[First Epistle of Peter]], 2:9:
:But you are not like that, for you are a chosen people. You are royal priests, a holy nation, God’s very own possession. As a result, you can show others the goodness of God, for he called you out of the darkness into his wonderful light.
(This [[New Living Translation]] version reflects the Protestant view, as the universal "royal priesthood" from the Bible Luther cites above has been changed to individual "royal priests".)
Other relevant Scripture passages include Exodus 19:5-6, First Peter 2:4-8, Revelation 1:4-6, 5:6-10, and many passages in the [[Epistle to the Hebrews]].
[[Ficheiro:AugsburgConfessionXXIOfTheWorshipoftheSaints.JPG|thumb|"Scripture...sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—[[Augsburg Confession]] Art. XXI.<ref>[ Augsburg Confession, Article 21, "Of the Worship of the Saints"]. trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: [[Augsburg Fortress]], 2000.</ref>]]
In ancient Israel, priests acted as mediators between God and people. They ministered according to God's instruction and they offered sacrifices to God on behalf of the people. Once a year, the high priest would enter the holiest part of the temple and offer a sacrifice for the sins of all the people, including all the priests.
Although many religions use priests, most Protestant faiths reject the idea of a priesthood as a group that is spiritually distinct from lay people. They typically employ professional clergy who perform many of the same functions as priests such as clarifying doctrine, administering communion, performing baptisms, marriages, etc. In many instances, Protestants see professional clergy as servants acting on behalf of the local believers. This is in contrast to the priest, whom some Protestants see as having a distinct authority and spiritual role different from that of ordinary believers.
Most Protestants today recognize only one mediator between them and God the Father, and that is God the Son, Jesus Christ (1 Timothy 2:5). The Epistle to the Hebrews calls Jesus the supreme "high priest," who offered himself as a perfect sacrifice (Hebrews 7:23-28). Protestants believe that through Christ they have been given direct access to God, just like a priest; thus the doctrine is called the '''priesthood of all believers'''. God is equally accessible to all the faithful, and every Christian has equal potential to minister for God. This doctrine stands in opposition to the concept of a spiritual aristocracy or hierarchy within Christianity.
The belief in the priesthood of all believers does not preclude order, authority or discipline within congregations or denominational organizations. For example, [[Lutheranism]] maintains the biblical doctrine of "the [[preaching]] office" or the "office of the holy [[Minister (Christianity)|ministry]]" established by God in the Christian Church. The [[Augsburg Confession]] states:
<blockquote>[From Article 4:] Furthermore, it is taught that we cannot obtain forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God through our merit, work, or satisfactions, but that we receive forgiveness of sin and become righteous before God out of grace for Christ’s sake through faith when we believe that Christ has suffered for us and that for his sake our sin is forgiven and righteousness and eternal life are given to us ... [From Article 5:] To obtain such faith God instituted the office of preaching, giving the gospel and the sacraments. Through these, as through means, he gives the Holy Spirit who produces faith, where and when he wills, in those who hear the gospel ... [Article 14:] Concerning church government it is taught that no one should publicly teach, preach, or administer the sacraments without a proper [public] call.<ref>Articles 4, 5, and 14 of the [[Augsburg Confession]] in Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, trans. and eds., ''The Book of Concord : The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church'', (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000), 39, 40, 46.</ref></blockquote>
The origins of the doctrine within Protestantism are somewhat obscure. The idea was found in a radical form in [[Lollardy|Lollard thought]]. [[Martin Luther]] adduced it in his writings for the purpose of reforming the Christian Church, and it became a central tenet of [[Protestantism]].
The doctrine is strongly asserted within [[Methodism]] and the [[Plymouth Brethren]] movement. Within [[Methodism]] it can plausibly be linked to the strong emphasis on social action and political involvement within that [[religious denomination|denomination]]. Within the [[Plymouth Brethren]], the concept is most usually evidenced in the lack of distinction between "clergy" and "laity," the refusal to adopt formal titles such as Reverend or Bishop, the denial of formal ordination, and in some cases the refusal to hire any "professional staff" or paid Christian workers at all. [[Baptist]] movements, which generally operate on a form of [[Congregationalist polity|congregational polity]], also lean heavily on this concept.
The vast majority of Protestants nonetheless draw some distinction between their own ordained ministers and lay people, but regard it as a matter of church order and discipline rather than spiritual hierarchy.
Some groups during the Reformation believed that priesthood authority was still needed, but was lost from the earth. [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] believed, "There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking." Another group, the [[Seekers]], believed that the Roman Catholic Church had lost its authority through corruption and waited for Christ to restore his true church and authority.
==Problemas com traduções==
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