Diferenças entre edições de "Usuário:Gato Preto/Testes/10"

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[[File:Golos Truda 14-12-1914.jpg|thumb|December 4, 1914.|317x317px]]
 
Após a repressão da [[Revolução Russa de 1905]] e o exílio dos dissidentes políticos do Império Russo, os jornais russos em Nova Iorque cresceram e prosperaram.<ref name="rischin">{{Cite book|last=Rischin|first=Moses|title=The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1914|publisher=[[Harvard University Press]]|authorlink=Moses Rischin|location=Cambridge|year=1977|isbn=0-674-71501-2|oclc=3650290|page=129|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Entre as florescentes publicações encontramos vários jornais e revistas políticas [[Sindicalista|sindicalistas]],<ref name="rischin" /> das quais ''Golos Truda'' fazia parte. Este último começou a ser publicado pela [[União dos Trabalhadores Russos|União dos Trabalhadores Russos nos Estados Unidos e no Canadá]] ({{Lang-en|Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada}}) em 1911, inicialmente de forma mensual.<ref name=":1">{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=255}}</ref> O jornal adaptou como ideologia o anarquismo na sua vertente sindicalismo, o [[anarcossindicalismo]]. Fusionou estas dous movimentos operários que emergeram do [[Congresso Internacional Anarquista de Amsterdã|Congresso Anarquista Internacional de Amesterdão]] em 1907 e que chegaram à América do Norte através da influência do [[Trabalhadores Industriais do Mundo]] ({{Lang-en|Industrial Workers of the World}}).<ref name=":0">{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=igrwb3rsOOUC&lpg=PA118&dq=%22anarcho-syndicalism%22&pg=PA118|título=Modern Political Ideologies|ultimo=Vincent|primeiro=Andrew|data=2009-03-30|editora=John Wiley & Sons|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9781444311051|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Os anarcossindicalistas rejeitavam a luta política nos [[Instituições públicas|orgãos estatais]] e o intelectualismo, considerando que os sindicatos eram as forças revolucionárias que iniciariam uma revolução social que findaria com o estabelecimento duma sociedade anarquista protagonizada pelo proletariado.<ref name=":0" />
 
Após o a vitória da [[Revolução de Fevereiro]], o [[Governo Provisório Russo]] declarou amnistia geral e ofereceu-se a sufragar e cobrir os gastos do retorno dos russos exiliados pela sua oposição ao [[czarismo]].<ref>{{Citar livro|url=https://books.google.es/books?id=f7J9BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=general+amnesty+russian+exiles+zarism+provisional+government&source=bl&ots=SZNI_EFfnQ&sig=xUxq119Hwi6PHXW7DGcjMElF87s&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwvbPIwOTaAhWL-KQKHVe0D-kQ6AEIYDAG#v=onepage&q=general%20amnesty%20russian%20exiles%20zarism%20provisional%20government&f=false|título=Russian Anarchists|ultimo=Avrich|primeiro=Paul|data=2015-03-08|editora=Princeton University Press|ano=|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9781400872480|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Assim, depois duma votação, toda a equipa editorial do ''Golos Truda'' deixou Nova Iorque e assentou-se em Petrogrado, onde continuaram o seu trabalho jornalístico.<ref name=":2">{{Citar web|url=http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html|titulo=Voline Biography|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=dwardmac.pitzer.edu}}</ref> Em [[Vancouver]], a 26 de Maio de 1917, os editores, juntamente com os artistas [[Ferrer Center]] e [[Manuel Komroff]] e outras treze pessoas, embarcaram rumo ao [[Japão]]; depois de chegar lá iam para a [[Sibéria]] e dali finalmente atravessá-la até chegar à Rússia europeia.<ref name="aa">{{Cite book|last=Antliff|first=Allan|authorlink=Allan Antliff|title=Anarchist Modernism|publisher=University of Chicago Press|location=Chicago|year=2001|isbn=0-226-02103-3|page=254|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> Enquanto embarcados, os anarquistas tocaram música, deram conferências, representaram obras de teatro e até chegaram a publicar um jornal revolucionário, ''A jangada''.<ref name="aa" />
 
==Publicação na Rússia==
[[File:Voline.jpg|thumb|left|[[Volin]] described ''Golos Truda'''s procedure of revealing misdeeds of those in power, and suggesting alternatives as, "not only its right, but incontestably its strictest duty."<ref name=volinc4/>]]
Embora no princípio os [[Bolchevique|bolcheviques]] não eram muito populares após a Revolução de Fevereiro–com o primeiro-ministro Aleksandr Kérenski, um liberal, a manter o apoio suficiente para sufocar um golpe de Estado, como o de Julho–aproveitaram a desordem e o colapso económico-social, as greves massivas e o escândalo de Kornílov para aumentar a sua popularidade e, posteriormente, controlar os conselhos operários, os [[sovietes]].<ref>{{Citar periódico|data=2017-06-19|titulo=Opinion {{!}} Was Lenin a German Agent?|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/19/opinion/was-lenin-a-german-agent.html|jornal=The New York Times|lingua=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/history/russia/october/revision/3/|titulo=BBC - Higher Bitesize History - The causes of the October Revolution : Revision, Page3|acessodata=2018-05-01|lingua=en-GB}}</ref><ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/provisionalgovernmentrev1.shtml|titulo=BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Provisional Government and its problems|acessodata=2018-05-01|lingua=en-GB}}</ref> VolinVoline lamentaria a lacuna de quase seis meses entre a Revolução de Fevereiro e o estabelicimento do ''Golos Truda'' na Rússia, considerando-o «uma grande e irreparável demora para os anarquistas»; agora, afrontavam uma situação muito complicada, com a maioria dos trabalhadores a seguir o poderoso e consolidado Partido Bolchevique, cuja propaganda<ref>{{Citar periódico|ultimo=Panfilova|primeiro=Vera|data=2017-11-05|titulo=Russia's revolutionary posters|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-41833406|jornal=BBC News|lingua=en-GB|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> tinha permeado por toda a sociedade operária e tinha dizimado os esforços anarquistas.<ref>{{Citar web|url=http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html|titulo=The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921|acessodata=2018-05-01|obra=www.ditext.com}}</ref>
 
InEm PetrogradPetrogrado, theo worktrabalho ofda beginningnova publicationpublicação wasfoi assistedauxiliada bypela thenascente nascent''União Anarchist-Syndicalistpara a Propaganda UnionAnarcossindicalista'', <ref name="rocker:2" />[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker,e Rudolf]].o [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.htmlnovo Foreword]jornal toaumentou {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref>consideravelmente ando thepoder newe paperforça bolstereddo themovimento city'soperário indigenousanarquista anarchist workers'nessa movementcidade.<ref>{{Cite book| last = Thorpe | first = Wayne | title = The Workers Themselves | publisher = Kluwer Academic | year = 1989 | isbn = 0-7923-0276-1 |page=59|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref> ItsA sua equipa editorial staff includedincluia [[Maksim Rayevsky]], [[Vladimir Shatov]] (theo [[Linotype machine|linotype]] operatorlinotipista),<ref name="aa" /> [[VolinVoline]],<ref name=av37>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=137}}<":1" /ref> [[Gregori Maksimov]], [[Alexander Schapiro]],<ref>{{CiteCitar weblivro|url=httphttps://robertgrahambooks.wordpressgoogle.com/2008/06/28es/books?id=ec5UCw2ZCIoC&pg=PT300&lpg=PT300&dq=alexander-+schapiro+golos+truda&source=bl&ots=z-anarchosyndicalism-and-anarchist-organization/ BVn2qKsS&sig=gMHLULm2go41AnaMOAbNlaZU0M4&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi08Jb14uTaAhWzZpoKHen4ArgQ6AEIYTAN#v=onepage&q=alexander%20schapiro%20golos%20truda&f=false|authorlinktítulo=RobertSasha Grahamand (historian)Emma: |last=GrahamThe |first=RobertAnarchist |title=AlexanderOdyssey Schapiroof -Alexander AnarchosyndicalismBerkman and Anarchist OrganizationEmma Goldman|workultimo=RobertAvrich|primeiro=Paul|ultimo2=Avrich|primeiro2=Karen|data=2012-11-01|editora=Harvard Graham's Anarchism WeblogUniversity Press|dateano=June|local=|páginas=|lingua=en|isbn=9780674070349|acessodata=1 28,de 2008maio |accessdate=March 20,de 20092018}}</ref> ande [[Vasya Swieda]].<ref name="iisg">{{CiteCitar web|url=http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/m/10760366full.php|titletitulo=G.P.IISH Maksimov- PapersArchives|accessdateacessodata=March 22, 20092018-05-01|workobra=www.iisg.nl|publisher=[[International Institute of Social History]]}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book| last = Avrich | first = Paul | authorlink=Paul Avrich |title = Anarchist Voices | publisher = [[AK Press]] | location = Stirling | year = 2005 | isbn = 1-904859-27-5 |oclc=64098230 |page=369|editora=|ano=|local=|páginas=|acessodata=1 de maio de 2018}}</ref>
 
The first (weekly) issue was published on August 11, 1917, with an editorial stated its firm opposition to the tactics and programs of the Bolsheviks, [[Mensheviks]], [[left Social Revolutionaries]], [[right Social Revolutionaries]] and others, and that the conception of revolutionary action of the anarchist socialists bore no resemblance to those of the Marxist socialists.<ref name=volinc4>Chapter 4, "[http://www.ditext.com/voline/271.html The Unknown Anarchist Press in the Russian Revolution]", {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref> It declared as its principal goal a revolution that would replace the [[Sovereign state|state]] with a free confederation of autonomous "peasant unions, industrial unions, factory committees, control commissions and the like in locations all over the country".<ref name=uno>{{Cite journal|journal=Golos Truda |issue=1 |date=August 11, 1917 |page=1 |title=Editorial}}</ref> This revolution would be "anti-statist in its methods of struggle, syndicalist in its economic content, and federal in its political tasks".<ref name=uno/> It placed its greatest hopes in the [[factory committee]]s, which had arisen spontaneously around the country after the February Revolution.<ref name=av40>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=140}}</ref>
 
Each of the early issues contained what Volin later described as "clear and definite articles on the way in which the Anarcho-Syndicalists conceived the constructive tasks of the Revolution to come", citing as examples "a series of articles on the role of the factory committees; articles on the tasks of the Soviets, and others on how to resolve the agrarian problem, on the new organization of production, and on exchange".<ref name=volinc4/> It published copious articles on the [[general strike]] as well as on the French ''[[bourses du travail]]'' and ''[[syndicats]]''.<ref name=av39>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=139}}</ref> The paper shifted to daily publication for three months after the [[October Revolution]] of that same year.<ref name="rocker">[[Rudolf Rocker|Rocker, Rudolf]]. [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/voline/biography.html Foreword] to {{Harvnb|Volin|1974}}</ref><ref name=volinc4/> In a series of articles, it proclaimed the necessity of immediately abandoning the [[vanguardist]] Bolshevik [[dictatorship of the proletariat]], and of allowing the workers freedom of association and action.<ref name=volinc4/>
 
Although ''Golos Truda'' sharply criticized the [[anarchist communists]] of Petrograd as romantics, ignorant of the complex social forces of the Revolution among Petrograd's Bolshevik-supporting factory workers, the ideas of the union and its paper were considered bizarre and met with little initial success.<ref name=volinc4/> Despite this, the anarchist-syndicalist union persisted and gradually acquired a degree of influence, focusing its efforts through propaganda in ''Golos Truda'', with the intent of capturing the attention of the public with its ideals and by differentiating itself from the other radical factions.<ref name=volinc4/> The paper's circulation continuing to increase in the city and its provinces, with robust anarchist collectives and meetings emerging in [[Kronstadt]], [[Oboukhovo]], and [[Kolpino]].<ref name=volinc4/> In March 1918, the Bolsheviks moved the seat of government from Petrograd to [[Moscow]], and the anarchists swiftly followed, moving the printing of ''Golos Truda'' to the new capital.<ref name="iisg">{{Cite web|url=http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/m/10760366full.php|title=G.P. Maksimov Papers|accessdate=March 22, 2009|work=iisg.nl|publisher=[[International Institute of Social History]]}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book| last = Woodcock | first = George | title = Anarchism: a History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements | publisher = Broadview Press | location = Peterborough | year = 2004 | isbn = 1-55111-629-4 |authorlink=George Woodcock}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Avrich|2006|p=179}}</ref>
 
==Repressão e legado==
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