Marietta Alboni

Marietta Alboni (Città di Castello, 6 de Março de 1826Ville-d'Avray, 23 de Junho de 1894)[1] foi uma cantora de ópera italiana (contralto).

Marietta Alboni
Nascimento 6 de março de 1826
Città di Castello
Morte 23 de junho de 1894 (68 anos)
Ville-d'Avray
Nacionalidade Itália Italiana

Foi sepultada no Cemitério do Père-Lachaise.

Características artísticasEditar

A voz de Alboni, um contralto excepcionalmente fina com um compasso uniforme de duas e meia oitavas, estendendo-se tão elevada como a soprano gama[2] foi dito possuir ao mesmo tempo poder, doçura, plenitude, e flexibilidade extraordinária. Ela não tinha pares em passagens que exigiam uma entrega sensível e uma calma semirreligiosa, devido à qualidade comovente de seu tom aveludado. Ela possuía vivacidade, graça e charme como atriz do tipo comédienne; mas ela não era uma tragédienne natural, e sua tentativa na parte fortemente dramática de Norma foi relatada às vezes como tendo fracassado.[3] No entanto, ela marcou um verdadeiro triunfo em 1850, quando ela fez sua estréia operística no Paris Opéra desempenhando o papel trágico de "Fides" em Le prophète de Meyerbeer, que tinha sido criado um ano antes por ninguém menos do que Pauline Viardot.  Além disso, ela foi capaz de lidar com tais papéis dramáticos como "Azucena" e "Ulrica" em Verdi 's Il Trovatore e Un ballo in maschera, e mesmo com o barítono papel de "Don Carlo" em Ernani (Londres, 1847).[4]

RepertórioEditar

A seguinte lista dos papéis desempenhados por Marietta Alboni foi elaborada por Arthur Pougin e publicada na biografia da cantora.[5] É relatado aqui com a adição de outras obras e personagens de acordo com as fontes declaradas nas notas de rodapé.

  • Anna Bolena, de Donizetti - Anna e Smeton[6]
  • L'assedio di Corinto, de Rossini - Neocle[7]
  • Un ballo in maschera, de Verdi - Ulrica
  • Il barbiere di Siviglia, de Rossini - Rosina
  • La Cenerentola, de Rossini - Cenerentola
  • Carlos VI, de Halévy - Odette
  • Consuelo, de Giovanni Battista Gordigiani - Anzoletto[8]
  • Così fan tutte, de Mozart - Dorabella
  • Il crociato, de Meyerbeer - Felicia
  • Un curioso accidente, pastiche com música de Rossini
  • David, oratório, de Muhlig
  • Don Giovanni, de Mozart - Zerlina
  • Don Pasquale, de Donizetti - Norina
  • La donna del lago, de Rossini - Malcolm e Elena
  • L'ebrea, de Pacini - Berenice[9]
  • Ernani, de Verdi - Don Carlo, Giovanna
  • La favorite, de Donizetti - Léonor
  • La fille du régiment, de Donizetti - Marie
  • La gazza ladra, de Rossini - Pippo e Ninetta
  • Giovanna D'Arco [ it ],[10] cantata, de Rossini
  • Giulietta e Romeo, de Vaccai - Romeo
  • Il giuramento, de Mercadante - Bianca[11]
  • Ildegonda, de Marco Aurelio Marliani - Rizzardo[12]
  • L'italiana em Algeri, de Rossini - Isabella
  • Lara, de Salvi - Mirza
  • Linda di Chamounix, de Donizetti - Pierotto
  • Lucrezia Borgia, de Donizetti - Maffio Orsini
  • Luisa Miller, de Verdi - Federica[13]
  • Maria di Rohan, de Donizetti - Gondi
  • Martha, por Flotow - Nancy
  • Il matrimonio segreto, de Cimarosa - Fidalma
  • Messias, oratório de Händel
  • La pazza per amore, de Coppola - Nina[14]
  • Norma, de Bellini - Norma
  • Le nozze di Figaro, de Mozart - A página (Cherubino)
  • Oberon, de Weber - Fátima
  • Petite messe solennelle,[15] massa de Rossini
  • Le prophète, de Meyerbeer - Fidès
  • La reine de Chypre, de Halévy - Catarina
  • Rigoletto, de Verdi - Maddalena
  • Saffo, de Pacini - Climene
  • Semiramide, de Rossini - Arsace
  • La sibilla,  por Pietro Torrigiani - Ismailia
  • La sonnambula, de Bellini - Amina
  • Stabat mater, Hino mariano, de Rossini
  • Tancredi, de Rossini - Tancredi
  • Il trovatore, de Verdi - Azucena
  • Zerline, de Auber - Zerline[16]
  • La zingara, de Balfe - Rainha dos Ciganos[17]
  • Les Huguenots, de Meyerbeer - A página (Urbain)

ReferênciasEditar

  1. Date stated by both Ciliberti and Pougin; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica gives the year as 1823.
  2. "She was a real contralto from f3 to g5, then, up to c6, she was an excellent soprano. Which enabled her to perform, with some adjustments ['con qualche "accomodo"'], also Zerlina in Don Giovanni, Amina in La sonnambula and Marie in La fille du régiment" (Celletti, pp. 243–244). In fact, her voice could reach down to f3 only while practising: in public her lowest note was g3. Alboni also reported that on practising she could sometimes climb up to e6 flat (Pougin, 2001, p. 96).
  3. Article: Alboni, Marietta, in Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Moore, F., New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead, 1905, I, p. 285. Not all sources, however, agree with the author of NIE; surely not Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who was very keen on opera, somewhat of a connoisseur. "Alboni was sublime in Norma, last night," he wrote to his best friend Charles Sumner on 15 February 1853, "Would you had been with us, in our snug box." (quoted in Christoph Irmscher, Public Poet, Private Man: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow at 200, University of Massachusetts Press, 2009, p. 6. ISBN 9781558495845). Walt Whitman went even farther likening "Alboni in the children's scene in Norma" to a marvel of Nature, such as "the wild sea-storm" he had once seen "one winter day, off Fire island", or "night-views … on the field, after battles in Virginia, or the peculiar sentiment of moonlight and stars over the great Plains, western Kansas" (Seeing Niagara to advantage, in Complete Prose Works, Kila MT/US, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, pp. 179–180, ISBN 9781419113703)
  4. Ciliberti; Celletti, pp. 243–244.
  5. Pougin, 2001, pp. 115-116.
  6. The role of the young musician is not mentioned by Pougin, but was certainly performed at the Royal Italian Opera (Covent Garden) in 1847 and 1848 (Royal Italian Opera, «The Musical World», n. 26, volume XXII, 26 June 1847, p. 445, and n. 25, volume XXIII, 17 June 1848, p. 389; accessible for free online at Books.Google: Volume XXII and Volume XXIII). The latter article seems also to disprove Elizabeth Forbes's statement that Alboni performed in the 1748 season of the Royal Italian Opera the role of Romeo in Bellini's I Capuleti e i Montecchi, which was sung, instead, by Pauline Viardot (Elizabeth Forbes, Alboni, Marietta, in Laura Macy (ed), The Grove Book of Opera Singers, New York, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 6–7, ISBN 978-0-19-533765-5).
  7. Pougin does not mention the character, but it is that of Neocle, transposed for contralto in the Italian version of the opera. It was Alboni's debut role at the Teatro alla Scala (italianOpera. Retrieved 17. October 2011).
  8. The première of this opera was performed at Prague in 1846 (William Ashbrook, Gordigiani. (2) Gordigiani, Giovanni Battista, in Stanley Sadie, II, p. 489) It should hence be a role created by Alboni.
  9. The character name, not mentioned by Pougin, is reported in the original libretto (cf. italianOpera. Retrieved 17 October 2011); it is a role created by Alboni (Milan, 1844). According to Casaglia, Alboni performed, instead, a would-be role of Eudossia, which is not even stated by the original libretto among the other characters of this opera.
  10. Performance not mentioned by Pougin, but stated by Gherardo Casaglia.
  11. The character name, not mentioned by Pougin, is reported by Gherardo Casaglia.
  12. The character name, not mentioned by Pougin, is reported in the original libretto (cf. italianOpera. Retrieved 15 October 2011); it is a role created by Alboni (Milan, 1843).
  13. The character name, not mentioned by Pougin, is reported in Frederick J. Crowest, Verdi: Man and Musician. His Biography with Especial Reference to his English Experiences, Londra, Milne, 1897, p. 99 (accessible for free online at Open Library.org). Given the minor nature of the part, however, Alboni "[substituted] a cavatina for the original duet of the opera" (the part was sung at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 1858).
  14. The character name, not mentioned by Pougin, is reported by Gherardo Casaglia.
  15. Not mentioned by Pougin (non-operatic performance).
  16. It was a première (Paris, 1851).
  17. The character name is not mentioned by Pougin; in his biography of Balfe, however, William Alexander Barret states that the two primadonnas of La Zingara (an Italian version of The bohemian girl, which was given in the first experimental winter season at Her Majesty's Theatre, in 1858) were Alboni and Marietta Piccolomini (Balfe: His Life and Work, London, Remington, 1882, p. 229; accessible for free online at Open Library.org). Considering that the latter certainly performed the soprano leggiero part of Arline (cf., for instance, Music with ease. Retrieved 15 October 2011), it follows that Alboni expectedly interpreted the contralto role of the Gypsy Queen.

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