Dragute, também chamado Dragute Arrais[1] (em turco: Turgut Reis; Karatoprak, 1485Malta, 23 de junho de 1565) foi um corsário e almirante otomano.

האנדרטה לזכר טורגוט רייס באיסטנבול
Nascimento 1485
Morte 23 de junho de 1565
Ilha de Malta
Sepultamento Trípoli
Cidadania Império Otomano
Ocupação corsário, oficial, pirata
Religião sunismo

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Foi um muçulmano[2][3][4] comandante naval otomano, governador e nobre turco[5][6][7][8] ou de ascendência grega.[9][10] Sob seu comando, o poder marítimo do Império Otomano foi estendido pelo norte da África.[9] Reconhecido por seu gênio militar,[11] e como um dos "mais perigosos"[12] dos corsários, Dragut foi referido como "o maior guerreiro pirata de todos os tempos",[11] "sem dúvida o mais capaz de todos os líderes turcos" e "o rei sem coroa do Mediterrâneo". Ele foi descrito por um almirante francês como "Um mapa vivo do Mediterrâneo, hábil o suficiente em terra para ser comparado aos melhores generais da época. Ninguém era mais digno do que ele de levar o nome de rei".[4]

Além de servir como Almirante e Corsário na Marinha do Império Otomano sob Solimão, o Magnífico, Dragut também foi nomeado Bey de Argel e Djerba, Beylerbey do Mediterrâneo, bem como Bey, e posteriormente Paxá de Trípoli. Enquanto servia como Paxá de Trípoli, Dragut construiu grandes feitos na cidade, tornando-a uma das mais impressionantes de se ver em toda a costa norte da África.[13]

Referências editar

  1. Lopes, David (1924). História de Arzila durante o domínio português (1471-1550 e 1577-1589). Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra. p. 426 
  2. E. Hamilton Currey (2008). Flag of the Prophet: The Story of the Muslim Corsairs. [S.l.]: Fireship Press. 168 páginas. ISBN 9781934757550. Brantome, that Dragut was born at a small village in Asia Minor called Charabulac, opposite to the island of Rhodes, and that his parents were Mahommedans. 
  3. Rafael Sabatini (2008). The Sword of Islam and Other Tales of Adventure. [S.l.]: Wildside Press. 7 páginas. ISBN 9781434467904. Ordinarily Dragut Reis – who was dubbed by the Faithful "The Drawn Sword of Islam" 
  4. a b Balbi, Francesco (2011). The Siege of Malta, 1565. [S.l.]: Boydell Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 9781843831402. Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'. 
  5. Jamieson, Alan G. (2013). Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs. Canada: Reaktion Books. 59 páginas. ISBN 978-1861899460. Desperate to find some explanation for the sudden resurgence of Muslim sea power in the Mediterranean after centuries of Christian dominance, Christian commentators in the sixth century (and later) pointed to the supposed Christian roots of the greatest Barbary corsair commanders. It was a strange kind of comfort. The Barbarossas certainly had a Greek Christian mother, but it now seems certain their father was a Muslim Turk. Attempts were made to give Greek Christian parents to Turgut Reis, but all the indications are that he came from a Muslim Turkish peasant family. 
  6. Cengiz Orhonlu (1968). Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi "Journal of Turkish History with Documents". pp. 69. "Turgut Reis is one of the well known of Turkish seaman of XVI. century Mediterranean. He is the son of a villager named Veli from the Menteşe - Serulus (Serulus or Seravulos) region. At early age he joined the seamen and became known. In short time he became a captain of levends. In some views his life as a corsair starts almost during the same time that of Barbarossa brothers. Later he began to operate on western Mediterranean seas, working together with Barbarossa brothers (Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, Künhü'l-ahbar, University books, No: 5959, pg. 300a)". [S.l.: s.n.] 
  7. ..However, when the sources are examined, There is no data to reach the judgment in question, moreover, all the evidence and clues that Turgut Reis came from a Muslim-Turkish family is pointing. (2015). «Cihan Yemişçi, Turgut Reis'in etnik menşei (Ethnic Origin of Turgut Reis) (in Turkish)». 2. Turgut Reis Ve Türk Denizcilik Tarihi Uluslararası Sempozyumu (1-4 Kasım 2013), Bildiriler 
  8. Svat Soucek,"Torghud Re'is",The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition), Vol. 10, LeidenBrill, 2000, p. 570. [S.l.: s.n.] 
  9. a b Reynolds, Clark G. (1974). Command of the sea: the history and strategy of maritime empires. [S.l.]: Morrow. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780688002671. Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546. 
  10. Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. [S.l.]: University of Texas Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. He participated in the successful Ottoman assault on Tripoli in 1551 against the Knights of St. John of Malta. 
  11. a b Judith Miller (28 de setembro de 1986). «Malta, Where Suleiman Laid Siege». The New York Times. Consultado em 29 de janeiro de 2017. Dragut Reis was respected as the best Moslem seaman of his era, a true pirate, Governor of Tripoli and a military genius. Many historians believe that, had he lived, the siege would have succeeded. His death, however, prompted squabbling between the two senior Ottoman military officers, which led, in turn, to a series of disastrous decisions that helped save the knights. It was on this point... that Dragut was mortally wounded before the fall of St. Elmo when a fragment of rock thrown up by a cannonball struck his head. He would have died instantly had it not been for his thick turban. Death came days later in his tent, shortly after he received news from a messenger that St. Elmo had fallen at last. 
  12. Braudel, Fernand (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II, Volume 2. [S.l.]: University of California Press. pp. 908–909. ISBN 9780520203303. Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys. 
  13. Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. [S.l.]: University of Texas Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. ... While pasha, he built up Tripoli and adorned it, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African littoral.