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Lista dos fabricantes de automóveis extintos dos Estados Unidos

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Este artigo ou seção está a ser traduzido de «List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers» na Wikipédia em inglês. Ajude e colabore com a tradução.

Lista de marcas de automóveis produzidos nos Estados Unidos. Os mesmos não são mais fabricados por diversas razões, tais como falência da companhia, fusões com outros fabricantes, ou simplesmente por terem-se tornado obsoletos.


Índice:       ·  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

AEditar

 
1911 Abbott-Detroit
 
1906 Adams-Farwell
 
Taylor Aerocar III on museum display
 
1912 ALCO
 
1952 Allstate
 
1939 American Bantam
 
1974 AMC Gremlin
 
1913 American Underslung
 
1932 Auburn 8-100A Custom 4-Door Sedan

BEditar

 
1909 Babcock
 
1919 Briscoe Model B 4/24 Touring
 
1912 Brush Runabout

CEditar

 
1919 Chandler Light Weight Model 19 Touring
 
Checker Taxi
 
The Columbia Mark III Phaeton
 
1930 Cord L-29

DEditar

 
1939 De Soto Series S-6 Custom De Luxe 4-Door Sedan
 
1930 Duesenberg J Walker Legrande Torpedo Phaeton
 
Du Pont Motors automobile
 
Duryea automobile

EEditar

 
1995 Eagle Talon
 
1904 Eldredge Runabout
 
1912 E.M.F. Model 30 Roadster

FEditar

 
Fiberfab FT Bonito
 
1925 Flint B-40 Touring

GEditar

 
Geo Prizm
 
1932 Graham Blue Streak 4-Door Sedan

HEditar

 
1916 Haynes
 
1937 Hudson Custom Eight
 
1929 Hupmobile Series M De Luxe Century Opera Coupe

IEditar

 
1911 International Harvester
 
1978 International Harvester Scout II

JEditar

 
A 1928 Jordan Sedan

KEditar

 
1954 Kaiser Darrin
 
The 1914 Keystone

LEditar

 
1921 LaFayette Four-Door Coupe
 
1938 La Salle Series Coupe
 
1919 Lexington Model R-19 Minute Man Six Touring 1919

MEditar

 
1929 Marmon Series 8-69 4-Door Sedan
 
Driver Mel Marquette's wrecked McFarlan racing car at the 1912 Indianapolis 500
 
1916 Mercer 22/72 Touring
 
Moon Roadster 6-40

NEditar

 
1946 Nash 4-Door Sedan

OEditar

 
1957 Oldsmobile Super 88
 
1910 Overland Model 38 Roadster

PEditar

 
1951 Packard 250 convertible
 
1966 Plymouth Barracuda
 
1910 Pope-Waverley coupe

QEditar

REditar

 
1906 REO Runabout
 
1929 Roosevelt 4-Door Sedan
 
A Royal Tourist of the US Army.

SEditar

 
The Smith Flyer
 
1923 Stanley Steam Car
 
1935 Stout Scarab at Owls Head Transportation Museum (Owls Head, Maine)
 
1916 Studebaker Touring
 
1927 Stutz Vertical Eight AA Limousine

TEditar

 
1938 Terraplane sedan.
 
A 1948 Tucker Sedan at the Blackhawk Auto Museum.

UEditar

VEditar

 
1920 Velie Model 34 Touring

WEditar

 
1905 White
 
1920 Willys-Knight advertisement
 
1908 Winton touring car

XEditar

YEditar

ZEditar

Referências

  1. Abbotts were built in Cleveland. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.190.
  2. This car was built in Chicago and was totally unrelated to the Kauffman. Clymer, p.205; Kimes, p.19.
  3. Clymer, p.205; Kimes, p.18.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq Clymer, p.205.
  5. Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.1016.
  6. Built in New York City. Clymer, p.178.
  7. Built in Cleveland.Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l m Clymer, p.170.
  9. Clymer, p.31.
  10. Clymer, p.205; Kimes, p.19.
  11. Built in St. Louis by the beer company. Clymer, p.170-1.
  12. a b c d e f g h i j k Flory, p.1016.
  13. Clymer, p.23 & 205.
  14. Front-wheel drive, built in New York City; allegedly the first FWD car. Clymer, pp.178 & 205.
  15. King-Remick
  16. Distinct from Babcock Electric. Clymer, p.205.
  17. Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.153 & 205.
  18. Builder of cars and trucks in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  19. Distinct from American Bantam and the bird. Clymer, p.170.
  20. Sold an electric tricycle before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  21. a b c d Flory, p.1016.
  22. Built in York, Pennsylvania. Clymer, p.193.
  23. Distinct from the other three. Clymer, p.205.
  24. Clymer, p.205.
  25. Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  26. Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190.
  27. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Clymer, p.23.
  28. a b c d e Clymer, p.170-1.
  29. A six-wheeler "motorcycle", built by Detroit artist & engineer James Scripps-Booth. Clymer, p.115.
  30. Clymer, pp. 5, 61, & 205.
  31. Distinct from the British brand. Flory, p.1016.
  32. Smith Flyer
  33. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  34. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Clymer, p.206.
  35. Automobiles built in Anderson, Indiana. Clymer, pp.5 & 190.
  36. Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.178.
  37. Made in St. Louis, Missouri Clymer, p.206.
  38. Clymer, pp.16, 170, & 206.
  39. a b One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 206.
  40. Distinct from Carhartt. Clymer, p.206.
  41. Distinct from Carrol. Clymer,p.206.
  42. a b Kimes(1985),p.929
  43. Distinct from Cartercar. Clymer, p.206.
  44. Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  45. Distinct from the Chevy. Clymer, p.206.
  46. Offered vehicles with electric, steam, or gasoline engines.
  47. Clymer, pp.22 & 178.
  48. Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago. Clymer, p.206.
  49. Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  50. Founded by J. Walter Christie. Clymer, p.206.
  51. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Church-Field. Clymer, p.206.
  52. Or Clarksmobile. Clymer, pp.25 & 206.
  53. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  54. One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.23.
  55. Built in Little Rock, Arkansas. Clymer, p.178.
  56. a b c Kimes(1985),p.331
  57. Packard, A History of the Motor Car and the Company (General edition), Beverly Rae Kimes, editor (1978), Automobile Quarterly", ISBN 0-915038-11-0"
  58. Triumph an Tragedy: The Last Real Packards by Richard M. Langworth, in Collectible Automobile, September, 1984 issue; p. 6-25; (ISSN 0742-812X)
  59. Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.178.
  60. Built in Denver, copied from the contemporary Renault. Clymer, p.87.
  61. Founded by J. J. Cole, built in Indianapolis. Clymer, p.104.
  62. Built in Yonkers, New York. Clymer, p.63.
  63. a b One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.206.
  64. Distinct from Columbia Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  65. Built at 564 Dublin Avenue, Columbus, Ohio. Clymer, p.145.
  66. Distinct from the Mercury. Clymer, p.206.
  67. Built in Plymouth, Ohio, friction transmission, dual chain drive, 1000-6000 lb payload or 9-20 seats. Clymer, p.67.
  68. Formerly Vaughn; builder of the Gas-au-lec, based in Peabody, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.158.
  69. Distinct from the Nash. Clymer, p.206.
  70. Distinct from Crane & Breed. Clymer, p.206.
  71. Clymer, pp.170 & 206.
  72. Built in Ohio and Pennsylvania. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  73. Distinct from the Clan Crusader. Clymer, p.5.
  74. Distinct from Cunningham. Clymer, p.206.
  75. Distinct from the racers. Clymer, p.206.
  76. One of two companies by this name. Clymer, pp.158 & 206.
  77. Named for the horse, built in Minneapolis. Clymer, p.178.
  78. Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.93.
  79. a b Clymer, pp.5 & 206.
  80. Clymer, p.170
  81. Distinct from the tractor. Clymer, p.206.
  82. Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  83. Built in Auburn, Indiana. Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  84. Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  85. Offered an electric phaeton before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  86. Distinct from Diamond T. Clymer, p.206.
  87. Clymer, p.206. Tourist was a model.
  88. a b c d e f Clymer, p.5.
  89. Clymer, p.206. By Alberto Santos-Dumont
  90. Clymer, p.206. Founder was later the author of Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia.
  91. Conceived by Buckminster Fuller.
  92. Built in Wisconsin, distinct from the Michigan company. Clymer, p.153.
  93. Steam and electric cars, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  94. Clymer, p.206. No connection to Eaton's.
  95. Distinct from either of the two Economys. Clymer, p.206.
  96. Clymer, p.38.
  97. Clymer, p.206. No connection to Electric Launch Company.
  98. Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Elite. Misspelling of Elmore??
  99. Clymer, pp.23 & 207. Distinct from Elite.
  100. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp Clymer, p.207.
  101. a b Clymer, p.8.
  102. a b c d e Horseless Age 1895.
  103. Clymer, p.170-1 & 207.
  104. Built in Cincinnati, Ohio. Clymer, p.104.
  105. Later Halladay or Streator, eventually Barley. Clymer, p.207.
  106. Car and truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  107. Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.104.
  108. Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the Fords.
  109. Built in Newark, Ohio by Halladay
  110. Built in Lewistown, Pennsylvania by Moller
  111. Distinct from Federal steam automobile company. Clymer, p.207.
  112. Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the header maker.
  113. Built in Cheboygan, Michigan, it weighed 900 pd and cost US$450. Clymer, p.166.
  114. Distinct from the other one. Clymer, p.207.
  115. An electric car. Clymer, p.40.
  116. a b One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  117. Built in Massillon, Ohio; called their car the Jewel. Clymer, p.63.
  118. a b Kimes(1985),p.1289
  119. Clymer, p.16.
  120. Built in Clintonville, Wisconsin, with four-wheel drive. Clymer, p.153.
  121. a b Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  122. Clymer, p.51.
  123. Distinct from the steamer. Clymer, p.207.
  124. Made by the multinational as experimental models.
  125. Clymer, p.207. Distinct from the multinational
  126. Gasoline and steam. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  127. Flory, p.1016, credits them only for 1950.
  128. Supposedly from Atlanta, Georgia. Clymer, p.207.
  129. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland 1916-1922. Clymer, p.190.
  130. a b Clymer, p.178.
  131. Clymer, pp.14 & 22.
  132. a b Kimes(1985),p.1447
  133. One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  134. Truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  135. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  136. Clymer, pp.170 & 190.
  137. No relation to the school. Clymer, p.170.
  138. Clymer, p.207
  139. Kimes, p.652 & 761.
  140. Distinct from Hatfield Motor Vehicle Company and Hatfield Company (truck manufacturer). Kimes, p.682.
  141. An aircooled, built in Wisconsin, sold for US$2000. Clymer, p.23.
  142. Clymer, p.112.
  143. Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Hewitt-Lindstrom.
  144. Steam and gasoline, based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  145. Clymer, p.207. Distinct from the Australian company.
  146. Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Holley.
  147. Clymer, pp.170-1 & 207.
  148. a b Clymer, pp.23 & 207.
  149. a b Clymer, pp.5 & 23.
  150. Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.23, 190, & 207.
  151. Clymer, pp.170 & 207.
  152. no relation with Jackson car. Kimes(1985),p.742
  153. In Boston. Kimes, pp.769 & 1407.
  154. a b In New York City. Kimes, p.769.
  155. Clymer, p.207; Kimes, p.769.
  156. In Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.23; Kimes, p.769.
  157. In Buffalo, New York. Kimes, p.769.
  158. a b Clymer, pp.18 & 23.
  159. Distinct from Johnson (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.207.
  160. Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.23 & 153.
  161. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef Clymer, p.208.
  162. Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with this one.
  163. Also sold commercial vans of 1, 2, 3, & 6 tons. Clymer, p.53.
  164. Clymer, p.131.
  165. One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.208.
  166. Kimes(1985),p.769
  167. Flory, pp.1011-12.
  168. Kimes, p.774.
  169. Based in Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.158.
  170. a b c Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  171. Clymer, p.208. Electrette was a model.
  172. Clymer, p.208. Distinct from LaSalle.
  173. Distinct from Lewis Motocycle. Clymer, p.208.
  174. A four-wheeler, despite the name. Clymer, p.8.
  175. Kimes(1985),p.828
  176. Kimes(1985),p.635
  177. Before 1912, the cars were called Sears. Clymer, p.90.
  178. began with steam autos
  179. a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.22.
  180. Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.890
  181. a b Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 208.
  182. Clymer, p.23. Distinct from Mason (empresa automobística).
  183. Clymer, p.208. Distinct from Mason (steam automobile company).
  184. Truck maker, Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  185. Built in Waterloo, Iowa. Clymer, p.93.
  186. Clymer, p.84.
  187. Distinct from the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  188. Built in Wisconsin by Joe Merkel, who later built the Merkel Motorcycle. Clymer, p.153.
  189. Distinct from the gas car and the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  190. Distinct from the steamer and the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  191. Clymer, p.208. Distinct from the Nash
  192. Built in Waltham, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.145.
  193. Built in Moline, Illinois. Clymer, p.93.
  194. Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.36 & 153.
  195. Clymer, p.57.
  196. Clymer, p.208. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Moline-Knight.
  197. Clymer, p.190.
  198. Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with Moggie.
  199. Clymer, pp.22 & 208.
  200. Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.92.
  201. Flory, p.1016, dates it to 1950.
  202. Built in Traverse City, Michigan. Clymer, pp.170 & 178.
  203. These are the earliest models of National, and are by the same company. Clymer, p.208.
  204. Not to be confused with the producers of the Ruxton.
  205. Clymer, pp.170-1 & 208.
  206. Often misspelled as Neilson (Clymer, p.208)
  207. Clymer, p.208.Not to be confused with the motorcycle.
  208. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek Clymer, p.209.
  209. Built in Milwaukee. Clymer, p.153.
  210. Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945 (1985), p.1013
  211. Clymer, pp.170 & 209.
  212. They wore Barney Oldfield's name. Clymer, p.178.
  213. Based in Cleveland. Same as Ottoker? Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  214. Clymer, pp.22 & 23.
  215. Based in Cleveland. Distinct from Owen Magnetic. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  216. built in Salem, Mass.; 1 gasoline & 2 electric cars Kimes(1985),p.1063
  217. Clymer, p.170. Distinct from Panther Westwinds.
  218. Built in Indianapolis, Indiana. Clymer, p.102.
  219. Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.151.
  220. a b Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1125
  221. Clymer, p.42.
  222. a b c Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1126
  223. Clymer, pp.6 & 153.
  224. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.5, 178, & 190.
  225. Friction-drive, built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  226. Based in Cleveland.Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  227. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the GM division.
  228. Clymer, pp.5 & 209.
  229. Clymer, pp.13 & 23.
  230. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Porter Motor Company.
  231. Flory, p.1016. Distinct from Powell Manufacturing Company?
  232. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Randall (empresa automobística).
  233. Distinct from the pickup. Clymer, p.209.
  234. Cars & trucks, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  235. Clymer, p.149.
  236. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Reading Steamer.
  237. Clymer, p.209. Said to be the cheapest car ever built.
  238. Producer of four-axle Octoauto and twin rear axle Sextoauto in Columbus, Indiana. Clymer, p.122-4.
  239. a b Clymer, pp.23 & 209.
  240. 1895 car produced by Remington Arms Company. Clymer, p.209.
  241. Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  242. Clymer, pp.22 & 209.
  243. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers (steam automobile company) and Rogers (empresa automobística).
  244. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers Steamobile (empresa automobística). One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.209.
  245. Rolls Royce
  246. From Kansas City, Missouri, supposedly front-wheel drive. Clymer, p.209.
  247. Royal Princess was the gasoline-powered car.
  248. A tricycle. Clymer, p.8.
  249. Clymer, p.209. Same as Dumont (empresa automobística) By Alberto Santos-Dumont?
  250. Clymer, p.209. By Henry Segrave?
  251. Keystone
  252. Clymer, p.25.
  253. Clymer, pp.90 & 209.
  254. Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the Chrysler.
  255. Built in Buffalo, New York. Clymer, p.5.
  256. Built by William H. Sharp , who called it the Arrow. Clymer, p.88.
  257. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm Clymer, p.210.
  258. Distinct from Spencer (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  259. Distinct from Spencer (empresa automobística). Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  260. One of two companies with this name. Clymer, p.210.
  261. a b Distinct from Stanley Motor Carriage Company. Clymer, p.210.
  262. Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Stearns (automóvel).
  263. One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.210.
  264. One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  265. Clymer, p.8. Not to be confused with the Jag.
  266. Originally Erie.
  267. Flory, p.1016. Fitting Cadillac V8s into Studebakers was common in the '50s, under the nickname Studillac, as well as into Fords as Fordillacs; it appears Flory has mistaken it.
  268. Clymer, pp.38 & 210.
  269. Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the Dodge, Plymouth, Studebaker, Nash Motors, Chevrolet, or GMC.
  270. Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with Summit Racing Equipment.
  271. Clymer,p.52.
  272. Clymer, p.190, locates them in Cleveland.
  273. a b c Clymer, pp.170 & 210.
  274. Clymer, p.22; Kimes, pp.769 & 1472
  275. Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the sportscar or the motorcycle.
  276. Flory, p.1014. May only have produced racing cars.
  277. Distinct from Victor (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  278. Clymer, pp.23. Distinct from Victor (empresa automobística).
  279. Built in Painesvile, Ohio. Clymer, p.135.
  280. Detroit-based builder of "generic" cars without badges so dealers could badge them as desired. Clymer, p.146.
  281. Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the pistol.
  282. Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (electric automobile company)
  283. Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (empresa automobística)
  284. Built by Reo.
  285. Flory, p.1016. Distinct from Woodill Motors?
  286. Kimes(1985),p.1519
  287. a b Kimes(1985),p.1520
  288. a b Kimes(1985),p.1521
  289. Kimes(1985)
  290. Supposedly from Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.210.

BibliografiaEditar

  • Automobile Quarterly (eds.). The American Car Since 1775. Kutztown, PA: Automobile Quarterly, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-525-05300-X
  • Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950.
  • Georgano, Nick (Ed.). The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-293-1
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9
  • Kimes, Beverly Rae, and Clark, Henry Austin, Jr. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942 (3rd edition). Iola, WI: Krause, 1996. ISBN 0-87341-428-4