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Lista de pessoas consideradas pai ou mãe de um campo científico

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Esta é uma lista de pessoas consideradas um "pai" ou "mãe" (ou "pai fundador" ou "mãe fundadora") de um campo científico. Tais pessoas são geralmente reconhecidas por terem feito a primeira contribuição significante e/ou delineação de um campo; também podem ser vistos com "um" ao invés de "o" pai ou mãe do campo. Debates sobre quem merece o título podem ser perenes. Em relação à ciência, o título foi outorgado aos filósofos gregos Tales de Mileto[1][2] – que tentou explicar fenômenos naturais sem recorrer à mitologia – e Demócrito, o seminal atomista.[3]

Ciências naturaisEditar

BiologiaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Bacteriologia Robert Koch / Ferdinand Julius Cohn[4] / Louis Pasteur Primeiro a descrever corretamente bactéria.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek[5]
Biogeografia Alfred Russel Wallace "...Frequentemente descrito como o pai da biogeografia, Wallace mostra o impacto da atividade humana sobre o mundo natural."[6]
Biologia[n 1] Aristóteles [7]
Ecologia Carolus Linnaeus / Ernst Haeckel / Eugenius Warming[8] Linnaeus fundou um ramo antigo da ecologia que ele chamou A Economia da Natureza (1772), Haeckel cunhou o termo "ecologia" (Alemão: Oekologie, Ökologie) (1866), Warming foi autor do primeiro livro sobre ecologia de plantas, Plantesamfund (1895).
Entomologia Jan Swammerdam [9]
Johan Christian Fabricius[10] Fabricius descreveu e publicou informações sobre mais de 10 mil insetos e refinou o sistema de classificação de Linnaeus.
William Kirby [11]
Charles Darwin[12][13][14] A Origem das Espécies (1859).
Genética Gregor Mendel Por seu estudo da hereditariedade de fenótipo de ervilhas, que forma a base da genética mendeliana.[15]
William Bateson Proponente do mendelismo.[16]
Ictiologia Peter Artedi "Muito maior que qualquer um destes ... foi ele que foi justamente chamado "pai da ictiologia, Petrus (Peter) Artedi (1705–35)."[17]
Liquenologia Erik Acharius "Erik Acharius, o pai da liquenologia..."[18]
Microbiologia Anton van Leeuwenhoek[19] O primeiro a observar micro-organismos na água em um microscópio e o primeiro a ver uma bactéria.
Biologia molecular Linus Pauling [20]
Biofísica molecular Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran[21] Fundou a [primeira no mundo?] unidade molecular biofísica (1970).
Paleontologia Leonardo da Vinci
Georges Cuvier
[22]
Parasitologia Francesco Redi Fundador da biologia experimental e a primeira pessoa a desafiar a teoria da geração espontânea, demonstrando que larvas são provenientes de ovos de moscas.[23]
Protozoologia Anton van Leeuwenhoek[5] Primeiro a descrever precisa e corretamente protozoários.
Taxonomia Carolus Linnaeus[24] Criou o sistema de nomear organismos vivos que tornou-se universalmente aceito no mundo científico.
Virologia Dimitri Ivanovski
Martinus Beijerinck
Primeiro descobridor do vírus (1892).

QuímicaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Teoria atômica (antiga) Demócrito[25] Fundador do atomismo em cosmologia.
Teoria atômica (moderna) Ruđer Bošković[26] Primeira descrição coerente da teoria atômica.
John Dalton[27] Primeira descrição científica do átomo como bloco formador de estruturas mais complexas.
Termodinâmica química (moderna) Gilbert Lewis / Willard Gibbs / Merle Randall / Edward Guggenheim[28] Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances (1923) e Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs (1933), que fez uma contribuição maior ao uso da termodinâmica na química.
Química (antiga) Geber (morreu em 815)[29][30][31][32] Introduziu o método experimental na alquimia e química no Islã medieval.
Química (moderna) Antoine Lavoisier[33] Elements of Chemistry (1787)
Robert Boyle[33] The Sceptical Chymist (1661)
Jöns Jacob Berzelius[34][35] Desenvolvimento da nomenclatura química (1800s)
John Dalton[33] Renascimento da teoria atômica (1803)
Química verde Paul Anastas[36] Concepção e fabricação de produtos químicos que são não-perigosos e ambientalmente benignos.
Química nuclear Otto Hahn[37]
Tabela periódica Dmitri Mendeleiev[38] Dispôs os sessenta e seis elementos conhecidos na época em ordem de massa atômica por intervalos periódicos (1869).
Físico-química Mikhail Lomonossov O primeiro a lecionar físico-química e cunhar o termo (1752).
Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff Jacobus van't Hoff é considerado um dos fundadores da disciplina de físico-química. Seu trabalho ajudou a fundar a disciplina como se apresenta atualmente.[39][40][41]
Svante Arrhenius[42] Concebeu a maior parte da fundamentação teórica da físico-química. Sobre o Equilíbrio de Substâncias heterogêneas (1876), Thermodynamik chemischer Vorgang (1882).
Wilhelm Ostwald "Wilhelm Ostwald é considerado um dos fundadores da disciplina de físico-química..."[43]

GeociênciasEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Geoquímica (moderna) Victor Moritz Goldschmidt Por desenvolver a classificação de Goldschmidt de elementos.
Geodésia (geografia matemática) Eratóstenes [44][45]
Geologia (moderna)
Limnologia (moderna) George Evelyn Hutchinson [48]
Mineralogia Georgius Agricola [49]
Matthew Fontaine Maury [50]
Tectônica de placas Alfred Wegener [51][52]
Oceanografia acústica Leonid Brekhovskikh [53]
Estratigrafia Nicolaus Steno [46]
Espeleologia Édouard-Alfred Martel Começou a primeira exploração sistemática dos sistemas de cavernas e promoveu a espeleologia como um campo separado de geologia.

Medicina e fisiologiaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Anatomia (moderna) Marcello Malpighi
Audiologia Raymond Carhart
  • "…the Father of Audiology himself, Raymond Carhart at Northwestern University…"[54]
  • "Carhart notch: A decrease in the bone-conduction hearing at the 2000 Hz region of patients with otosclerosis first reported by and therefore named after the father of audiology, Raymond Carhart."[55]
Biofísica Hermann von Helmholtz
Biomecânica Christian Wilhelm Braune First to describe the methodology of human gait walking.
Bioeletromagnetismo Luigi Galvani First to discover animal electricity through a series of experiments.
Terapia cognitiva Aaron Temkin Beck
  • "In developing ways to do this, Beck became the father of cognitive therapy, one of the most important developments in psychotherapy in the last 50 years."[56]
  • The Prospect of Immortality (1962)
Criônica Robert Ettinger [57]
Odontologia (moderna) Pierre Fauchard [58]
Eletrofisiologia Emil du Bois-Reymond The discoverer of nerve action potential.
Medicina de urgência
Aptidão física Jack LaLanne [62]
Ginecologia James Marion Sims [63][64]
Histologia Marcello Malpighi
Anatomia humana (moderna) Andreas Vesalius[65] De humani corporis fabrica (1543)
Genética médica Victor McKusick[66] Mendelian Inheritance in Man
Medicina (antiga)
Medicina (moderna) Hipócrates[7][70][71][72] Prescribed professional practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Oath.
Neurocirurgia Harvey Cushing[73] Developed techniques that considerably reduced the risks involved with brain surgery in the early 20th Century.[73]
Neurociência Santiago Ramón y Cajal Comprehensive work on structure of the brain.
Enfermagem (moderna) Florence Nightingale See Nursing#History.
Nutrição (moderna)
  • "Justus Von Liebig, the 'father of modern nutrition', developed the perfect infant food. It consisted of [...]"[74]
  • "In addition to being known as the Father of Modern Chemistry, Lavoisier is also considered the Father of Modern Nutrition, as the first to discover the metabolism that occurs inside the human body..."[75]
Transplantação de órgãos Thomas Starzl[76] Performed the first human liver transplant and established the clinical utility of anti-rejection drugs including ciclosporin. Developed major advances in organ preservation, procurement and transplantation.
Cirurgia ortopédica (modern) Hugh Owen Thomas[77] He stressed the importance of rest in treatment and was responsible for many landmark contributions to orthopaedic surgery. He was especially celebrated for his design and use of splints; the famous Thomas knee splint was still in wide use at the end of World War II.
Medicina ortomolecular Linus Pauling
Patologia (moderna) Rudolf Virchow Founded modern Pathology and Social Medicine and published Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre which is regarded as the basis of modern medical science.
Psicologia (experimental) Wilhelm Wundt[78] Founded the first laboratory for psychological research.
Pediatria Rasis[79] Wrote The Diseases of Children, the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independent field.
Fisiologia Claude Bernard[80] An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865)
Fisicultura Bernarr Macfadden "It delighted the heart of our old friend Bernarr Macfadden, 'the Father of Physical Culture,' when we told him how much athletic activity and good sportsmanship had to do with the rehabilitation of boys."[81]
Cirurgia plástica Wrote the Sushruta Samhita.
Psicanálise Sigmund Freud [84]
Psicofísica Gustav Theodor Fechner[85] Elements of Psychophysics (1860)
Medicina espacial Hubertus Strughold "After Wernher von Braun, he was the top Nazi scientist employed by the American government, and he was subsequently hailed by NASA as the 'father of space medicine'"[86]
Cirurgia (antiga) Sushruta[82][83] Wrote the Sushruta Samhita.
Cirurgia (moderna)
Toxicologia Paracelso [95]

Física e astronomiaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Acústica Ernst Chladni[96] Por pesquisas fundamentais sobre vibração de placas
Bomba atômica Enrico Fermi
Robert Oppenheimer
Leslie Groves
Edward Teller
Por sua participação no Projeto Manhattan
Aerodinâmica Nikolai Jukovsky
George Cayley[97]
Zhukovsky was the first to undertake the study of airflow, was the first engineer scientist to explain mathematically the origin of aerodynamic lift. Cayley Investigated theoretical aspects of flight and experimented with flight a century before the first airplane was built
Cosmologia física Albert Einstein (fundador)

Henrietta Swan Leavitt (mãe)[98]
Edwin Powell Hubble (pai)[98]

Leavitt discovered Cepheid variables, the "Standard Candle" by which Hubble later determined galactic distances. Einstein's general theory of relativity is usually recognized as the theoretic foundation of modern cosmology.
Mecânica clássica Isaac Newton (fundador)[99] Described laws of motion and law of gravity in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687)
Eletricidade William Gilbert[100]
Michael Faraday[101]
Book: De Magnete (1600)
Descobriu a indução eletromagnética (1831)
Eletrodinâmica André-Marie Ampère[102] Book: Memoir on the Mathematical Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomena, Uniquely Deduced from Experience (1827)
Energética Josiah Willard Gibbs[103] Publication: On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (1876)
Física experimental (fundador) Alhazen[104][105] For introducing experimental method into physics with his Book of Optics (1021)
Astronomia moderna Nicolau Copérnico[106] Developed the first explicit heliocentric model in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)
Física moderna Galileu Galilei[107] His development and extensive use of experimental physics, e.g. the telescope
Física nuclear Ernest Rutherford[108] Developed the Rutherford atom model (1909)
Ciência Nuclear Marie Curie
Pierre Curie[109]
Óptica Alhazen[110] Correctly explained vision and carried out the first experiments on light and optics in the Book of Optics (1021).
Física do Plasma Irving Langmuir
Hannes Alfvén[111]
Langmuir first described ionised gas as plasma and observed fundamental plasma vibrations, Langmuir waves.
Alfvén pioneered the theoretical description of plasma by developing magnetohydrodynamics.
Mecânica quântica Max Planck (fundador)[112]Werner Heisenberg Stated that electromagnetic energy could be emitted only in quantized form
Relatividade Albert Einstein (fundador)[113] Pioneiro da relatividade restrita (1905) e relatividade geral (1915)
Viagem espacial Robert Goddard
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Hermann Oberth
Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket.
Tsiolkovsky deduziu a equação de foguete de Tsiolkovsky.
Termodinâmica Sadi Carnot (fundador)[114] Publication: On the Motive Power of Fire and Machines Fitted to Develop that Power (1824)

Ciências formaisEditar

MatemáticaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Álgebra al-Khwārizmī[115] Brahmagupta[116]
Diofanto de Alexandria[117][118]
Full exposition of solving quadratic equations in his Al-Jabr and recognized algebra as an independent discipline.
First use of symbolism (syncopation) in his Arithmetica.
Topologia algébrica Henri Poincaré[119] Published Analysis Situs in 1895,[120] introducing the concepts of homotopy and homology, which are now considered part of algebraic topology.
Análise Augustin-Louis Cauchy[121]
Karl Weierstrass[122]
Geometria analítica René Descartes
Pierre de Fermat[123](fundadores)
For their independent invention of the Cartesian Coordinate System
Cálculo Isaac Newton[124]
Gottfried Leibniz
Ver Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy.
Análise clássica Madhava de Sangamagrama[125] Developed Taylor series expansions of trigonometric functions
Ciência da computação George Boole
Alan Turing
Invented Boolean logic, which is the basis of modern digital computer logic
Provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine.
Geometria descritiva Gaspard Monge[126]
(fundador)
Developed a graphical protocol that creates three-dimensional virtual space on a two-dimensional plane
Geometria fractal Benoît Mandelbrot
Geometria Euclides[127] Euclid's Elements deduced the principles of Euclidean geometry from a set of axioms.
Teoria dos grafos Leonhard Euler[128] Ver Sete pontes de Königsberg
Escola italiana de geometria algébrica Corrado Segre[129] Publications and students developing algebraic geometry
Geometria não euclidiana János Bolyai,
Nikolai Lobachevsky[130](fundadores)
Independent development of hyperbolic geometry in which Euclid's fifth postulate is not true
Teoria dos números Pythagoras[131]
Probabilidade Gerolamo Cardano, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Christiaan Huygens[132] (fundadores) Fermat and Pascal co-founded probability theory, about which Huygens wrote the first book
Geometria projetiva Girard Desargues[133](fundador) By generalizing the use of vanishing points to include the case when these are infinitely far away
Cálculo tensorial Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro[134]
(fundador)
Book: The Absolute Differential Calculus
Trigonometria Aryabhata Hiparco[135][136] Constructed the first trigonometric table.
Álgebra Vetorial,
cálculo vetorial
Willard Gibbs[137]
Oliver Heaviside[138]
(fundadores)
Por seu desenvolvimento e uso de vetores em álgebra e cálculo

Teoria de sistemasEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Teoria do caos Henri Poincaré[139]
Edward Lorenz[140]
Lorenz attractor
Cibernética Norbert Wiener[141] Book Cybernetics: Or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. 1948.
Programação dinâmica Richard Bellman
Lógica difusa Lotfi Asker Zadeh
Teoria da informação Claude Shannon[142] Article: A Mathematical Theory of Communication (1948)
Controle ótimo Arthur Earl Bryson[143] Book: Applied Optimal Control[144]
Controle robusto George Zames[carece de fontes?] Small gain theorem and H infinity control.
Teoria da estabilidade Aleksandr Lyapunov[carece de fontes?] Lyapunov function
Dinâmica de sistemas Jay Wright Forrester[145] Book: Industrial dynamics (1961)

Ciências sociaisEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Antropologia Heródoto[146]
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[147][148]
Demografia Ibne Caldune[149] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
Egiptologia Athanasius Kircher[150]

Jean-François Champollion[carece de fontes?]

First to identify the phoenetic importance of the hieroglyph, and he demonstrated Coptic as a vestige of early Egyptian, before the Rosetta stone's discovery.
Translated parts of the Rosetta Stone.
Historiografia Ibne Caldune Wrote several essential books
História Herodotus (who also coined the term)
Indologia Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[148] Wrote the Indica
Direito internacional Alberico Gentili
Francisco de Vitoria
Hugo Grotius
Influential contributions to the theory of international law, war and human rights
Linguística (antiga) Panini Wrote the first descriptive grammar (of Sanskrit)
Linguística (moderna) Ferdinand de Saussure

Noam Chomsky

Sociologia Ibne Caldune[149][151]
Adam Ferguson[152]
Auguste Comte (who also coined the term)[153]
Marquis de Condorcet (fundador)[154]
Wrote the first sociological book, the Muqaddimah (Prolegomena).
"Father of modern sociology"
Introduced the scientific method into sociology.

EconomiaEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Contabilidade e escrituração Luca Pacioli[155] Establisher of accounting and the first person to publish a work on bookkeeping.[155]
Economia (antiga) Ibne Caldune[156]
Chanakya / Kautilya[157]
Publication: Muqaddimah (1370)
Publication: Arthashastra (400 BCE - 200 CE)
Economia (moderna)
Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen[162][163][164][165][166] The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (1971)
Macroeconomia John Maynard Keynes[167] Author of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money and groundbreaking economist, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking. Prior to Keynes, the general consensus among economists was that the economy was self-fixing. During the Great Depression, when people began to realize that the economy would not fix itself, Keynes proposed that the government needed to intervene to combat excessive boom and bust. This idea was the largest influence in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.[168][169]
Economia matemática Daniel Bernoulli Forerunner of the Tableau économique.[170]
Economia monetária
  • Oresme's De Moneta.
  • "Irving Fisher [...] spent his career studying questions about money and the economy - how money affects interest rates, how money affects inflation, and the impact of money on overall economic activity. For this work, he is regarded as the father of monetary economics."[172]
  • "[...] no less an authority than the University of Chicago's Milton Friedman, the father of monetary economics, [...]"[173]
Microcrédito Muhammad Yunus[174] Founded Grameen Bank
Economia pessoal Edward Lazear Published the first paper in the field.

Escolas do pensamentoEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Escola Austríaca Carl Menger[175]
Comunismo Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
David Ricardo[176]
Escola de Salamanca Francisco de Vitoria[177] Highly influential teacher and lecturer on commercial morality

TeoriasEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Teoria das expectativas Tomás Caetano[178] Recognised the effect of market expectations on the value of money
Teoria moderna do portfólio Harry Markowitz[179]
Teoria da escolha social Kenneth Arrow Created the field with his 1951 book, Social Choice and Individual Values

Outros camposEditar

Campo Pessoa/pessoas
considerado "pai" ou "mãe"
Razão
Ciência (moderna) Galileo Galilei[180]
[181][182]
For systemic use of experimentation in science and contributions to scientific method, physics and observational astronomy
Física (antiga) Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)[183][184] Alhazen developed rigorous experimental methods of controlled scientific testing to verify theoretical hypotheses and substantiate inductive conjectures.

Developed Baconian method in his Novum Organum (1620).

Economia familiar Ellen Swallow Richards Founded the American Association of Home Economics, currently the American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences. "Bringing science into the home, Richards hoped to "...attain the best physical, mental, and moral development" for the family, which she believed was the basic unit of civilization."[185]

NotasEditar

  1. Nome sugerido em 1802 pelo naturalista alemão Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus e introduzido como um termo científico mais tarde por Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

Referências

  1. Singer, C. (2008). A Short History of Science to the 19th century. [S.l.]: Streeter Press. p. 35 
  2. Needham, C. W. (1978). Cerebral Logic: Solving the Problem of Mind and Brain. [S.l.]: Loose Leaf. p. 75. ISBN 0-398-03754-X 
  3. Pamela Gossin, Encyclopedia of Literature and Science, 2002.
  4. Drews G (1999). "Ferdinand Cohn, a Founder of Modern Microbiology". ASM News 65 (8).
  5. a b p. 18, Foundations in microbiology: basic principles, Kathleen Park Talaro, 6th ed., international ed., McGraw-Hill, 2007, ISBN 978-0-07-126232-3.
  6. DK Publishing (2010). Explorers: Tales of Endurance and Exploration. [S.l.]: Penguin. p. 272. ISBN 9780756675110 
  7. a b Strong, W. F.; Cook, John A. (julho de 2007), «Reviving the Dead Greek Guys», Global Media Journal, Indian Edition, ISSN 1550-7521, consultado em 11 de setembro de 2016, cópia arquivada em |arquivourl= requer |arquivodata= (ajuda) 🔗  |title= e |título= redundantes (ajuda)
  8. Goodland, R.J. (1975) The tropical origin of ecology: Eugen Warming’s jubilee. Oikos, 26, 240-245. [1]
  9. p. 208, A history of social thought, Paul Hanly Furfey, The Macmillan company, 1942.
  10. p. 162, Museum: the Macleays, their collections and the search for order, Robyn Stacey, Ashley Hay, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-521-87453-X.
  11. p. 118, The fossil hunter: dinosaurs, evolution, and the woman whose discoveries changed the world, Shelley Emling, Macmillan, 2009, ISBN 0-230-61156-7.
  12. Darwin, Charles (1842, published 1909), "Pencil Sketch of 1842", in Darwin, Francis, The foundations of The origin of species: Two essays written in 1842 and 1844., Cambridge University Press, <http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID = F1556&viewtype=text&pageseq=1> Retrieved on 2006-12-15
  13. Moore, James (2006), "Evolution and Wonder - Understanding Charles Darwin", Speaking of Faith (Radio Program), American Public Media, <http://speakingoffaith.publicradio.org/programs/darwin/transcript.shtml Arquivado em 22 de dezembro de 2008, no Wayback Machine.> Retrieved on 2006-12-15
  14. van Wyhe, John (2006), Charles Darwin: gentleman naturalist: A biographical sketch, <http://darwin-online.org.uk/darwin.html> Retrieved on 2006-12-15
  15. «The Father of Genetics». Consultado em 11 de setembro de 2016. Arquivado do original em 16 de julho de 2013 
  16. p. 91, Theory change in science: strategies from Mendelian genetics, Lindley Darden, Oxford University Press US, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506797-5.
  17. Jordan, David Starr (1905). A Guide to the Study of Fishes. [S.l.]: Henry Holt and Company , online at Google Books, p. 390.
  18. Department of Cryptogamic Botany no Museu Sueco de História Natural (17 de dezembro de 1999).
  19. Madigan M, Martinko J (editors) (2006). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall.
  20. «Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers - Special Collections - Oregon State University». Consultado em 11 de setembro de 2016. Arquivado do original em 5 de junho de 2010 
  21. Prathap, Gangan (março de 2004), «Indian science slows down: The decline of open-ended research», Current Science, 86 (6): 768–769 [768] 
  22. p. 287, On social structure and science (volume 1996 of Heritage of sociology), Robert King Merton and Piotr Sztompka, University of Chicago Press, 1996, ISBN 0-226-52071-4.
  23. Levine R, Evers C. «The Slow Death of Spontaneous Generation (1668-1859)» 
  24. Hovey, Edmund Otis, "The Bicentenary of the Birth of Carolus Linnaeus", New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1908.
  25. Rothbard, Murray N. (2006). Economic thought before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought (PDF). Cheltnam, UK: Edward Elgar. p. 10. ISBN 0-945466-48-X 
  26. Thomas Woods. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 4 & 107. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  27. Patterson, Elizabeth C. (1970). John Dalton and the Atomic Theory. Garden City, New York: Anchor. p. 10 
  28. Ott, Bevan, J.; Boerio-Goates, Juliana (2001). Chemical Thermodynamics - Principles and Applications. [S.l.: s.n.] ISBN 0-12-530990-2 
  29. Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), «On wine, chirality and crystallography», Acta Crystallographica A, 64: 246–258 [247], doi:10.1107/s0108767307054293 
  30. John Warren (2005). "War and the Cultural Heritage of Iraq: a sadly mismanaged affair", Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5, p. 815-830.
  31. Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Geber) Arquivado em 30 de junho de 2008, no Wayback Machine.. Universidade da Indonésia.
  32. Paul Vallely. How Islamic inventors changed the world. Arquivado maio 3, 2015 no WebCite The Independent.
  33. a b c Kim, Mi Gyung (2003). Affinity , That Elusive Dream - A Genealogy of the Chemical Revolution (Epilogue: A Tale of Three Fathers). [S.l.: s.n.] ISBN 0-262-11273-6 
  34. Berzelius, Jöns (1779–1848) - Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography
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